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  • Active transportation
  • Active transportation measures how many people walk or bike to work.

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada collects this data for each census year. Recent data can be accessed at: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/index-eng.cfm

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated for each census year, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Transportation is an important and unavoidable part of our daily lives, whether we are going to work, school, or social gatherings. Active transportation is being increasingly embraced by cities as a transportation mode that provides multiple benefits, including improved citizen health, decreased road damage, better air quality, decreased costs to commuters, increased social interactions and even higher property values (City of Winnipeg, 2011). Active transportation is closely linked to the natural environment, in that it is a carbon-free mode of transportation and does not impact air quality.

    Active transportation has a close connection with health. The World Health Organization (2002) reports physical inactivity causes roughly 3.2 million deaths each year. Moderate physical activity, such as walking and cycling, reduces the risk of illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, colon cancer, breast cancer and depression. Using active transportation to get to work can provide enough activity to obtain these health benefits. Johan de Hartog et al. (2010) suggest that a person travelling 7.5 kilometres by bike to and from work (roughly 30 minutes of exercise) will meet minimum exercise requirements to improve their health. The authors estimate that active transportation can add 3 to 14 months to a person's life expectancy.

    Active transportation also relates closely to the built environment. When cities provide well-maintained and interconnected bike lanes and walking paths, as well as features such as traffic calming, their citizens will be more likely to use active transportation (Frank et al., 2006; Winters et al., 2010).

    Measurement and Limitations

    The active transportation indicator shows the percentage of people who walk or bicycle as their primary mode of transportation to work. All members of the labour force aged 15 years and over who worked at some time over the previous year are included.

    This indicator does not take into account individual variation in the mode of transportation taken to work. For instance, an individual who drives a car to work 60 per cent of the time and bicycles 40 per cent of the time would only be recorded as using an automobile. This indicator also does not account for transportation used for outings not related to work.

    Additionally, this indicator does not take into account differences in distance. An individual bicycling 5 kilometres to work is not differentiated from an individual who bicycles 15.

    References

    City of Winnipeg (2011). An active city is a vibrant city. Retrieved fromhttp://winnipeg.ca/publicworks/MajorProjects/ActiveTransportation/vibrant-city.stm

    Frank, L.D., Sallis, J.F., Conway, T.L, Chapman, J.E., Saelens, B.E., & Bachman, W. (2007). Many pathways from land use to health: Associations between neighborhood walkability and active transportation, body mass index, and air quality. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(1), 75-87.

    Johan de Hartog, J., Boogaard, H., Nijland, H., & Hoek, G. (2010). Do the health benefits of cycling outweigh the risks? Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(8), 1109-1116.

    Winters, M., Brauer, M., Setton, E.M., & Teschke, K. (2010). Built environment influences on healthy transportation choices: Bicycling versus driving. Journal of Urban Health, 87(6), 969-993.

    World Health Organization (2012). Physical activity. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/physical_activity/en/

    Census Indicators
    • active total
  • Activity limitation
  • Activity limitation measures the percentage of Winnipeggers who are sometimes or often limited in their ability to participate in an activity or carry out a daily activity due to an inadequate physical or mental support.

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). CANSIM table 105-0501.

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    According to Barrier-free Manitoba (2016), in the province, there are nearly 175,000 people living with disabilities. This may include disabilities such as; vision, hearing, physical, intellectual, developmental, learning, mental health, speech or language, deaf-blind and chronic pain. Accessibility barriers may be architectural or physical in nature; they may be technological, organizational and attitudinal or deal with communication.

    Two significant groups who face accessibility issues include the aging population, which is increasing in Winnipeg, and those chronic health conditions such as diabetes. Eye related complications and lower limb amputations are a common result of complications from diabetes. In Winnipeg CMA in 2011, the median age was 39.2 years. However, there were 102,850 Winnipeggers over 65 years; 14.1 per cent of the city’s population (Statistics Canada, 2011). The diabetes rate in the Winnipeg RHA was 0.80 cases per 100 people aged 19 years and over in 2009/10-2011/12; with 1.0 percent of diabetes patients had a diabetes associated lower limb amputation (MCHP, 2014).

    Measurement and Limitations

    This is a broad indicator that speaks to individuals’ accessibility based on mental or physical impairment or disability. The CCHS reports on individuals’ limitations in carrying out daily tasks or participating in events but does not ask to specify the nature of the limitation.

    The CCHS uses Regional Health Area (RHA) boundaries. As a result of changes to Health Region geography in Manitoba in 2012, data from 2012 onward will be presented by Regional Health Authority (RHA). As of 2012, the Winnipeg RHA includes the town of Churchill Manitoba.

    As of 2012, Statistics Canada includes the following geographies in Winnipeg RHA: The City of Winnipeg, the Town of Churchill as well as East St. Paul and West St. Paul regional municipalities.

    References

    Statistics Canada (2016). CANSIM table 105-0501 Health indicator profile, annual estimates, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2013 boundaries) and peer groups. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&id=1050501

    Barrier-free Manitoba (2016). What is a barrier?. Retrieved from: http://www.barrierfreemb.com/whatisabarrier

    Census Indicators
    • Activitylimitationpercent
  • Air quality
  • The air quality indicator measures the amount of two common outdoor air pollutants at the city level: ground-level ozone (O3), and particulate matter (PM2.5). A higher number indicates a greater health risk due to air pollution.

    Data source

    Air quality data are provided by Manitoba Sustainable Development.

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Exposure to ground-level ozone and particulate matter are strongly linked to health; for instance, they can lead to increased hospital admissions and higher mortality rates (Environment Canada, 2009a; Health Canada, 2002). The "Harvard Six Cities" study, which has been replicated on several occasions, found a 13 per cent increase in the risk of mortality among adults in the eastern United States due to long-term exposure to particulate matter (Laden, Schwartz, Speizer, & Dockery, 2006; Pope III & Dockery, 2006). These pollutants can make it harder to breathe, irritate lungs and airways, and worsen chronic respiratory and cardiovascular conditions such as heart disease, chronic bronchitis, etc. (Environment Canada, 2011a).

    The negative effects of air pollution are heightened for particular risk groups. People at increased risk include: (1) people with existing or previous heart and lung conditions, such as asthma, heart rhythm problems, and chronic bronchitis; (2) young children; (3) the elderly; and (4) people participating in sports or strenuous work outdoors (Environment Canada, 2009b).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Air quality is measured as a concentration of each pollutant in the air: PM2.5 refers to airborne particles that are 2.5 microns or less in diameter, and is measured in micrograms (one-millionth of a gram) per cubic metre air. Figures reported are the 98th percentile ambient measurement annually, averaged over three consecutive years.

    Ground-level ozone is measured in parts per billion (ppb) and figures reported are the 4th highest measurement annually, averaged over three consecutive years.

    For both pollutants, a higher number indicates a greater health risk.

    Other air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide are not measured because their health effects are largely predicted by measures of ground-level ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter (Environment Canada, 2008).

    The two monitoring stations used here are the Ellen Street and Scotia Street air quality monitoring stations. The Ellen Street station is a proxy for the downtown area, and the Scotia Street station is a proxy for residential Winnipeg.

    References

    Environment Canada. (2008). Frequently asked questions about the new AQHI. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ec.gc.ca/cas-aqhi/default.asp?lang=En&n=3E3FDF68-1#ws2A8C79F7

    Environment Canada. (2009a). The science of air quality. Retrieved from http://www.ec.gc.ca/cas-aqhi/default.asp?lang=En&n=0929D3A1-1

    Environment Canada. (2009b). Are you at risk? Retrieved from http://www.ec.gc.ca/cas-aqhi/default.asp?lang=En&n=8727DF6F-1

    Environment Canada. (2010). Ground level O3. Retrieved from http://www.ec.gc.ca/air/default.asp?lang=En&n=590611CA-1

    Environment Canada. (2011a). About the Air Quality Health Index. Retrieved from http://www.ec.gc.ca/cas-aqhi/default.asp?Lang=En&n=065BE995-1

    Environment Canada. (2011b). Particulate matter. Retrieved from: http://www.ec.gc.ca/air/default.asp?lang=En&n=2C68B45C-1

    Health Canada. (2002). Air pollution, climate change, and your health. Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/alt_formats/hecs-sesc/pdf/pubs/air/climate-eng.pdf

    Frank, L.D., Sallis, J.F., Conway, T.L, Chapman, J.E., Saelens, B.E. & Bachman, W. (2007). Many pathways from land use to health: Associations between neighborhood walkability and active transportation, body mass index, and air quality. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(1), 75%u201387.

    Laden, F., Schwartz, J., Speizer, F.E., & Dockery, D.W. (2006). Reduction in fine particulate air pollution and mortality: Extended follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities Study. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 173, 667-672.

    Pope III, A., & Dockery, D. (2006). Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect. Journal of Air & Waste Management Association, 56, 709-742.

    World Bank. (1999). Nitrogen oxides. Pollution prevention and abatement handbook. In Pollution and abatement handbook (pp. 223-226). Washington, http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ World Bank. Retrieved from http://smap.ew.eea.europa.eu/media_server/files/l/v/poll_abatement_hanbook.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Ozone
    • Particulate matter
  • Automobile use
  • Automobile use measures how many people take a car, truck or van to work.

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada collects this data for each census year. Recent data can be accessed at: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/index-eng.cfm

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated for each census year, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Transportation is an important and unavoidable part of our daily lives whether we are going to work, school, or social gatherings. Extensive use of motorized transportation (i.e. cars, vans, trucks) affects human and environmental well-being. Convenient and well-designed access to automobile alternatives (e.g., public transit, walking paths, bike paths) can decrease reliance on automobiles and result in a variety of benefits for the environment, community and citizens.

    According to Statistics Canada (2006), motorized transportation produced nearly 75 per cent of Canada's total carbon monoxide emissions in 2004. Additionally, it produced more than 50 per cent of nitrogen oxide emissions and more than 25 per cent of volatile organic compounds, both of which impact human health effects and affect the natural environment (Statistics Canada, 2006; Environment Canada, 2009; World Bank, 1999). In 2006, transportation accounted for roughly 26 per cent of Canada's greenhouse gas emissions (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012). It is also worth noting that social inequities have been documented in exposure to air pollution from vehicles; low-income residents may be more at risk for vehicle pollution-induced problems such as respiratory illnesses or certain cancers (Chakraborty, 2009).

    This indicator is closely connected to the built environment. The attractiveness of different modes of transportation depends heavily on the design of transportation networks and urban planning (Ewing, Meakins, Bjarnson, & Hilton, 2011; Ewing & Cervero, 2001). Urban design can significantly influence the level to which residents are dependent upon automobiles (Zhang, 2006). When multiple options are facilitated (e.g. public transit, active transit), automobile use is likely to decrease.

    Measurement and Limitations

    The automobile use indicator shows the percentage of people who use an automobile (e.g., car, truck, van), either as a driver or passenger, to get to work. All members of the labour force aged 15 years and over who worked at some time over the previous year are included.

    This indicator does not take into account individual variation in the mode of transportation taken to work. For instance, an individual who drives a car to work 60 per cent of the time and takes public transit 40 per cent of the time would only be recorded as commuting by automobile. This indicator also does not account for transportation used for outings not related to work.

    Additionally, this indicator does not take into account differences in distance. An individual driving 5 kilometres to work is not differentiated from an individual who drives 15.

    References

    Chakraborty, J. (2009). Automobiles, air toxics, and adverse health risks: Environmental inequities in Tampa Bay, Florida. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 99(4), 674-697.

    Environment Canada. (2009). The science of air quality. Retrieved from http://www.ec.gc.ca/cas-aqhi/default.asp?lang=En&n=0929D3A1-1

    Ewing, R., & Cervero, R. (2001). Travel and the built environment: A synthesis. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. 1780, 87-114.

    Ewing, R., Meakins, G., Bjarnson, G., & Hilton, H. (2011). Transportation and land use. Making Healthy Places, part III, 149-169.

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC). (2011). Environment - transportation. Retrieved from http://www4.hrsdc.gc.ca/.3ndic.1t.4r@-eng.jsp?iid=67

    Statistics Canada. (2006). Human activity and the environment: Annual statistics 2006. Statistics Canada, 2006. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/16-201-x/16-201-x2006000-eng.pdf

    World Bank. (1999). Pollution prevention and abatement handbook. Washington, http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ World Bank. Retrieved from http://smap.ew.eea.europa.eu/media_server/files/l/v/poll_abatement_hanbook.pdf

    Zhang, M. (2006). Travel choice with no alternative: Can land use reduce automobile dependence? Journal of Planning Education and Research, 25(3), 311-326.

    Census Indicators
    • Car, truck, or van as driver or passenger, total
  • Average house price
  • Average house price measures the average price of homes listed in the Multiple Listing Service database used by Canadian realtors.

    Data Source

    Economic Development Winnipeg. 2015. Average house prices - Winnipeg and Canada. From: http://www.economicdevelopmentwinnipeg.com/uploads/document_file/average_residential_prices_winnipeg_and_canada.pdf?t=1446667607

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Housing is usually the largest component of a households wealth. When housing prices go up, homeownersnet worth increase, and they tend to be more willing to spend more and take on additional debt. This has a significant positive impact on the economy.

    Conversely, when housing prices decrease, households find it more difficult to borrow (as their equity has decreased), and rather than spending, they tend to try to pay off their mortgages faster.

    Housing prices also impact Winnipeggers' willingness and ability purchase a home, or to live in certain areas of the city.

    Measurement and Limitations

    Average house price measures average residential detached housing prices listed in the Multiple Listing Service (MLS) system - this means that private sales may not be included. Rates are seasonally adjusted.

    References

    Economic Development Winnipeg. 2015. Average house prices - Winnipeg and Canada. From http://www.economicdevelopmentwinnipeg.com/uploads/document_file/average_residential_prices_winnipeg_and_canada.pdf?t=1446667607

    Nathalie Girouard & Sveinbjorn Blondal, 2001. House Prices and Economic Activity. OECD Economics Department Working Papers 279, OECD Publishing. From:http://www.oecd.org/eco/monetary/1888662.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Average MLS House Price
  • Body mass index
  • Body mass index (BMI) is a measure used to compare people according to height and weight. In Peg, we report the percentage of the population that is overweight, and the percentage that is obese according to their BMI.

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada. (n.d.). CANSIM Table 105-0501: Health indicator profile, annual estimates, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2012 boundaries) and peer groups. Retrieved fromhttp://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1050501&pattern=&csid=

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated annually, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Obesity is a significant health risk factor for chronic conditions such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes, and a greater risk of premature mortality.

    Measurement and Limitations

    The Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to compare individuals according to their height and weight. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight data for people over the age of 18 in the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    The BMI is calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in metres) squared, and typically ranges from 15 to 45. In Peg, we are reporting the percent of the population that is overweight, and the percentage of the population that is obese. BMI values from 25 to 29 are classified as "overweight," and values greater than 30 are classified as "obese."

    Data are reported for the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA). It should be noted that 2012 data use new boundaries from previous years' data-the former Churchill Regional Health Authority (RHA) has been integrated into the WRHA. The Churchill RHA has a very small population (approximately 1,000 individuals), but may have affected the figures somewhat.

    References

    Manitoba Centre for Public Health. (2009). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2009. Retrieved fromhttp://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/RHA_Atlas_Report.pdf

    Public Health Agency of Canada. (2011). Obesity in Canada: A joint report from the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Retrieved fromhttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/hl-mvs/oic-oac/assets/pdf/oic-oac-eng.pdf

    Statistics Canada. (2013). CANSIM Table 105-0501: Health indicator profile, annual estimates, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, terriories, health regions (2012 boundaries) and peer groups. Retrieved fromhttp://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1050501&pattern=&csid=

    Census Indicators
    • Obese
    • Overweight
  • Building permits value
  • Building permits value measures the total value of residential construction projects.

    Data Source

    City of Winnipeg, Planning Property and Development Statistics

    http://www.winnipeg.ca/ppd/statistics_5.stm

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    According to Statistics Canada: Building permit data are widely used as a leading indicator for the construction industry since the issuance of a building permit is one of the first steps in the construction process. Statistics on building permits are essential for the computation of residential capital expenditures and inputs for the quarterly and annual estimates of net capital stock and depreciation by component. They are also a major input in the computation of the investment in non-residential building construction on a sub-annual basis. In addition, the results of this survey are used by CMHC (Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation) as a reference base for conducting a monthly survey of housing starts and completions in accordance with its mandate. The statistics are used by a wide range of economists, construction industry analysts, housing market analysts and economic development officers across Canada.

    Measurement and Limitations

    This data is collected directly from municipalities - no sampling is done.

    References

    Statistics Canada. 2015. Building Permits Survey: http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=2802&lang=en&db=imdb&adm=8&dis=2

    Census Indicators
    • Total Building Permits Value
  • Businesses per capita
  • Businesses per capita measures the number of registered businesses per 1,000 Winnipeggers.

    Data Source

    Economic Development Winnipeg (2015). Economic Performance Indicators. Retrieved from: http://www.economicdevelopmentwinnipeg.com/uploads/document_file/2013_economic_performance_indicators.pdf

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated every 5 years, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    The number of businesses per capita is an indicator of the vibrancy of the small and medium sized enterprises sector. In Canada, 70 percent of the total private sector labour force is employed by small businesses, and these businesses created an average of 100,000 jobs, between 2002 and 2012, accounting for almost 78 percent of all private sector jobs created (Industry Canada, 2013). These enterprises are an important part of the economic ecosystems of sectors by playing a key role in the development of innovative products and services as well as being important contributors to economic growth. Their contribution to economic development is made in several ways: converting innovative ideas into economic opportunities, revitalizing social and productive networks, and increasing productivity. Studies have shown that countries that have high start-up rates of these enterprises benefit from higher economic growth (OECD, 2001).

    Measurement and Limitations

    The Small Business Branch of Industry Canada publishes an annual publication providing baseline data (number of businesses, employment, survival, growth, innovation, exports, GDP contribution, business owner characteristics) on small businesses sector in Canada, at provincial and national levels. City level data can be obtained through Statistics Canada's Business Register (BR), which provides biannual information reflecting the counts of business locations and business establishments by: 9 employment size ranges; geography groupings: province/territory, census division, census subdivision, census metropolitan area and census agglomeration; and industry using the North American Industry Classification System.

    References

    OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development). 2001. Entrepreneurship, Growth and Policy. Paris: OECD.

    Industry Canada (2013). Key Small Business Statistics - August 2013, Retrieved from: http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/061.nsf/eng/h_02800.html.

    Census Indicators
    • Number of businesses
  • Charitable donations
  • Charitable donations measures the median amount donated by Winnipeggers per year. In other words, half of Winnipeggers who donated to charitable organizations donated more than this amount, and half donated less than this amount.

    Data Source

    Canada Revenue Agency, via Statistics Canada (CANSIM table 111-0001). Retrieved from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1110001&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated annually, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Charitable donations make a significant difference in the community, supporting organizations causes and values Canadians believe in and contributing to well-being. To support this giving, the Government of Canada provides income tax credits. The act of giving has also been shown to potentially increase the "psychological well-being, self-esteem or social status and reputation of donors themselves" (Turcotte, 2012, p. 18). The amount donated reflects a number of factors: "level of awareness that a need exists, feeling that one is able to make a difference, relative cost of the donation as a proportion of disposable income, strength of altruistic or pro-social values, desire for social recognition, psychological benefits related to giving, being solicited and how this is done" (Turcotte, 2012, p. 18).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Charitable donations measures the median amount donated by Winnipeggers each year, as captured by taxfiler data. According to Statistics Canada (2013), Charitable donor is defined as, "a taxfiler reporting a charitable donation amount on line 340 of the personal income tax form." Charitable donation is defined as, "the allowable portion of total donations, as reported on the income tax return" (Statistics Canada, 2013).

    References

    Statistics Canada. (2013). CANSIM Table 111-0001: Summary of charitable donors. Retrieved from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1110001&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid

    Turcotte, M. (2012). Charitable giving by Canadians. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2012001/article/11637-eng.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Charitable donations
  • Child care spaces
  • Child care spaces measures how many licensed child care spaces are available for every 100 children.

    Data Source

    Data for child care spaces were obtained from Manitoba Families.

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Child care is not only an important service for parents who cannot take care of their children at certain times during the day due to work or other commitments, but it can also help prepare children for school by building cognitive, language, and social skills (Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP), 2004; Peisner-Feinberg et al., 2001).

    This indicator is closely connected to basic needs. Particularly for single parents, but also for dual-parent families, placing young children in child care is the only way in which they can work to sustain their livelihoods. Without these spaces, many parents would be forced to resign from their jobs in order to care for their young children.

    Measurement and Limitations

    The ratio of child care spaces is measured by the number of licensed child care spaces available per 100 children aged 0 to 12. In other words, this indicator measures the supply of child care spaces for children aged 0 to 12 years old in relation to the total number of children aged 0 to 12.

    The number of child care spaces has been counted roughly every 18 months. 2007 data were collected in December, 2009 data was collected in May, and 2010 data was again collected in December.

    This indicator measures the supply of licensed child care spaces in Winnipeg, not the demand for child care spaces. Since only a portion of parents with children aged 0 to 12 express a demand for child care, it is not possible to infer from this data the total demand for child care spaces.

    Additionally, this indicator does not include unlicensed or informal child care spaces. For example, home providers caring for up to four children do not require a licence; therefore, not all residential child care spaces are accounted for. Some programs operated by schools are also exempt from licensing.

    References

    Beaujot, R. & Ravanera, Z.R.. (2009). Family models for earning and caring: Implications for child care and for family policy. Canadian Studies in Population, 36(1-2), 145-166.

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2004). How do educational outcomes vary with socioeconomic status? Key findings from the Manitoba Child Health Atlas 2004. Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/ch.atlas.pdf

    Peisner-Feinberg, E., Burchinal, M., Clifford, R., Culkin, M., Howes, C., Kagan, S., & Yazejian, N. (2001). The relation of preschool child care quality to children's cognitive and social developmental trajectories through second grade. Child Development, 72, 1534-1553.

    Census Indicators
    • Spaces per 100 children (0-12)
    • Spaces per 100 children (0-5)
    • Spaces per 100 children (6-12)
  • Children in care
  • Children in care measures the percentage of children who are removed from their families and placed in the care of another adult.

    Data Source

    Child and Family Services Information System (CFSIS) via Manitoba Center for Health Policy. MCHP. 2012. How Are Manitoba's Children Doing? Available at: http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/mb_kids_report_WEB.pdf

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2013. This data is updated as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Children in care is a predictor of many negative outcomes. According to the Manitoba Center for Health Policy: "The prevalence of children in care is high in Canada relative to other countries (Thoburn, 2007), and Manitoba's rate of out-of-home placements is one of the highest in Canada (Mulcahy & Trocm, 2010). Indeed, Manitoba's prevalence of out-of-home placements for children up to 11 years is 10 times higher than Western Australia's (Mulcahy & Trocm, 2010). Our results show that prevalence of children in care increased in Manitoba over the study period; incomplete data may have masked the extent of that increase. Given that these children have poorer health and educational outcomes (Brownell et al., 2008; Brownell et al., 2010; Katz et al., 2011), it is important to have accurate data on children in care for planning purposes. Incomplete data poses difficulties for building consistent evidence to inform policy" (MCHP 2012, 140).

    Measurement and Limitations

    The children are counted based on the address of the "family head" of the family of origin, a proxy for the location for family of origin lived. Though gaps in data have been reported at the provincial level, data for Winnipeg is largely complete. Some caution should be exercised in making comparisons with other jurisdictions; there are differences in the way that data is collected between provinces. For instance, in some provinces a child is placed in care of extended family is considered to be "in care", whereas it is not in other provinces.

    References

    MCHP. 2012. How Are Manitoba's Children Doing? Available at: http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/mb_kids_report_WEB.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Total children in care
  • Children's injuries
  • The children's hospitalization due to injuries indicator measures the total number of children under five years of age admitted to a hospital due to an injury per 10,000 children under five years of age over a five year period.

    Data Source

    Data for this indicator was obtained from Manitoba Health (www.gov.mb.ca/health/).

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2011. This data is updated every 5 years, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Children's hospitalization due to injuries is closely connected to Health. Both minor and serious injuries to children under five years of age can have major effects on their growth and development, given their rapid growth in early years and relative fragility.

    This indicator illustrates the relative safety of children's environments - strong correlations between socioeconomic status and injury rates were reported in the Manitoba Child Health Atlas (MCHP 2008):

    "Injury hospitalization rates were strongly related to socioeconomic status, with increases in injury hospitalizations in both rural and urban areas as area-level income decreased. For example, in rural areas in the second time period, the injury hospitalization rate in the lowest income quintile areas was over three times higher than that in the highest income neighbourhoods. In urban areas in the second time period, there was almost a threefold difference in rates of injury hospitalizations: 62.3/10,000 for the lowest urban income quintile neighbourhoods compared to 22.0/10,000 for the highest income quintile."

    Measurement and Limitations

    The children's hospitalization due to injuries indicator measures the total number of children under five years of age admitted to a hospital as a result of an injury per 10,000 children under five years of age between 1996/1997 and 2008/2009. It does not include hospitalizations due to medical error and/or drug complications.

    Rates were adjusted to the Winnipeg population overall.

    The children's hospitalization due to injuries indicator has been age- and sex-adjusted by Manitoba Health to each area's population, meaning that differences in children's hospitalization between areas that might have been explained by differences in age or sex composition have been removed through statistical manipulation. This adjustment allows for fair comparisons among areas with different population characteristics.

    Incidences of hospitalization are recorded according to the residential address of the hospitalized child, rather than the location of the incident or hospital attended. The indicator does not include children's injuries that do not result in hospitalization. Further, this data provides no indication of the severity or causes of children's injuries in each community area. Consequently, although two community areas may have similar rates of children's hospitalization due to injury, the causes and severity of these injuries may vary significantly.

    References

    Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (2010). WRHA Community Health Assessment 2009-2010. retrieved from http://www.wrha.mb.ca/research/cha2009/files/ReportFull.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Children's hospitalization
  • Collision victims
  • Collision victims tracks the number of traffic accidents resulting in injuries or fatalities.

    Data Source

    Manitoba Public Insurance. (n.d.). Traffic Collision Statistics Reports. Retrieved from: http://www.mpi.mb.ca/en/Rd-Safety/Overview/Pages/TrafficCollisionStatisticsReport.aspx

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated annually, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    The number of injuries and/or fatalities reflects the safety of the road infrastructure, the provision of safe vehicles, law enforcement, mobility planning, the provision of health and hospital services, child welfare services, and urban and environment planning (World Health Organization and World Bank, 2004). Factors leading to road traffic injuries include car safety features, the design of the built environment, road conditions, time of day, and driver behaviour (seatbelt use, drug and alcohol use, use of cell phones while driving, etc.).

    Although complex, road safety is an important public health issue. In a jointly produced report, the World Health Organization and the World Bank (2004), demonstrate that road traffic injuries disproportionately affects vulnerable groups of road users including the poor, with more than half the people killed being young adults between 15 and 44 years of age who are often the breadwinners of their family. Another reason for concern is that road traffic injuries pose a significant burden on our health care system in terms of emergency treatment, chronic care and rehabilitation (Ramage-Morin, 2008).

    Around the world, millions of people die or are severally injured every year due to traffic accidents. In contrast to the scale of human suffering, road safety efforts are described as minimal (World Health Organization and World Bank, 2004). In Canada, road traffic accidents a responsible for approximately 2,000 fatalities and 11,500 serious injuries annually.

    Measurement and Limitations

    The data used for this indicator changed in 2011 as a result of changes to reporting requirements. From 1995 to October 2011, only police-reported collisions were included in the figures. From October 2011 onwards: collision claims registered with Manitoba Public Insurance result in a Traffic Accident Report being completed, as long as the accident occurred on a public roadway and it meets the other requirements of being a reportable collision (MPI, p.5). This has resulted in a significant increase in the number of collisions recorded, particularly accidents resulting in property damage and/or minor injuries. To handle the change, data from 2012 onwards has been presented separately.

    References

    Manitoba Public Insurance. (n.d.). Traffic Collision Statistics Reports. Retrieved from: http://www.mpi.mb.ca/en/Rd-Safety/Overview/Pages/TrafficCollisionStatisticsReport.aspx

    Ramage-Morin, P.L. (2008) Motor Vehicle Accident Deaths 1979-2004. Statistics Canada Health Reports, Volume 19 (No 3).

    Transport Canada (2011). Road Safety in Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/motorvehiclesafety/tp-tp15145-1201.htm

    Transport Canada (n.d.). Motor Vehicle Safety. Retrieved from: http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/motorvehiclesafety/menu.htm

    World Health Organization and World Bank (2004). World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention. Retrieved from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2004/9241562609.pdf?ua=1

    Census Indicators
    • Collision fatalities
    • Collision injuries
  • Collision victims
  • Collision victims tracks the number of traffic accidents resulting in injuries or fatalities.

    Data Source

    Manitoba Public Insurance. (n.d.). Traffic Collision Statistics Reports. Retrieved from: http://www.mpi.mb.ca/en/Rd-Safety/Overview/Pages/TrafficCollisionStatisticsReport.aspx

    Rationale and Connections

    The number of injuries and/or fatalities reflects the safety of the road infrastructure, the provision of safe vehicles, law enforcement, mobility planning, the provision of health and hospital services, child welfare services, and urban and environment planning (World Health Organization and World Bank, 2004). Factors leading to road traffic injuries include car safety features, the design of the built environment, road conditions, time of day, and driver behaviour (seatbelt use, drug and alcohol use, use of cell phones while driving, etc.).

    Although complex, road safety is an important public health issue. In a jointly produced report, the World Health Organization and the World Bank (2004), demonstrate that road traffic injuries disproportionately affects vulnerable groups of road users including the poor, with more than half the people killed being young adults between 15 and 44 years of age who are often the breadwinners of their family. Another reason for concern is that road traffic injuries pose a significant burden on our health care system in terms of emergency treatment, chronic care and rehabilitation (Ramage-Morin, 2008).

    Around the world, millions of people die or are severally injured every year due to traffic accidents. In contrast to the scale of human suffering, road safety efforts are described as minimal (World Health Organization and World Bank, 2004). In Canada, road traffic accidents a responsible for approximately 2,000 fatalities and 11,500 serious injuries annually.

    Measurement and Limitations

    The data used for this indicator changed in 2011 as a result of changes to reporting requirements. From 1995 to October 2011, only police-reported collisions were included in the figures. From October 2011 onwards: %u201Ccollision claims registered with Manitoba Public Insurance result in a Traffic Accident Report being completed, as long as the accident occurred on a public roadway and it meets the other requirements of being a %u201Creportable collision%u201D (MPI, p.5). This has resulted in a significant increase in the number of collisions recorded, particularly accidents resulting in property damage and/or minor injuries. To handle the change, data from 2012 onwards has been presented separately.

    References

    Manitoba Public Insurance. (n.d.). Traffic Collision Statistics Reports. Retrieved from: http://www.mpi.mb.ca/en/Rd-Safety/Overview/Pages/TrafficCollisionStatisticsReport.aspx

    Ramage-Morin, P.L. (2008) Motor Vehicle Accident Deaths 1979-2004. Statistics Canada Health Reports, Volume 19 (No 3).

    Transport Canada (2011). Road Safety in Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/motorvehiclesafety/tp-tp15145-1201.htm

    Transport Canada (n.d.). Motor Vehicle Safety. Retrieved from: http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/motorvehiclesafety/menu.htm

    World Health Organization and World Bank (2004). World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention. Retrieved from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2004/9241562609.pdf?ua=1

    Census Indicators
    • Collision fatalities
    • Collision injuries
  • Community gardens
  • Community gardens measures how much land is used as community gardens.

    Data Source

    Community garden data are provided by the City of Winnipeg Naturalist Services Branch.

    A map of community and allotment gardens in Winnipeg can be found at: http://www.winnipeg.ca/publicworks/ParksandFields/CommunityGardens/Garden%20website%20map/Large%20Map.pdf

    Rationale and Connections

    Community gardens are small plots of land either owned by the city or privately by an individual or organization, where individuals or community groups come together to grow vegetables, herbs, and other plants.

    Community gardens provide multiple benefits for such areas as health, basic needs, education, the economy and social vitality (Zubrycki, 2006). They can become an integral part of a community, contributing far more than just food.

    The linkages to health and basic needs are clear. It has been shown that the presence of community gardens results in increased fruit and vegetable consumption in gardeners compared to non-gardeners (Dickinson et al., 2003). Gardens can be particularly important in low-income areas, such as the so-called "food deserts" of the inner-city, where supermarkets are often hesitant to locate. The result is a lower availability of produce and, therefore, higher difficulty for residents to manage healthy diets (Howe, 2002). Gardening also provides beneficial exercise and has been shown to benefit mental health (Jackson, 1996; Myers, 1998). Related to meeting basic needs are the economic benefits of gardening.

    The provision of food and the offsetting of costs are actually often not the main goal of community gardens. Holland (2004) found that education, particularly that of children, was the main reason the majority of gardens in his study were created. Citizens recognize the need to show children where food comes from. Gardens are also seen as a way to learn about science, community involvement, cultural foods, and to gain hands-on skills (Dickinson et al., 2003; Doyle & Krasny, 2003).

    Community gardens are also highly valued for their contributions to social vitality. They provide an environment in which community members can interact and share knowledge, thereby building a sense of belonging and inclusion among users. As a result, community gardens promote community cohesion, pride, trust, and cooperation (Dickinson et al., 2003; Glover, Parry, & Shinew, 2004).

    Finally, community gardens are linked to the built environment. There is often tension between the use of land for community gardens and its use for development and construction of buildings. Some people do not see urban gardening as a valuable use of land, when a home or business could be constructed on that space instead (Howe, 2002; Kurtz & Smith 2003; Schmelzkopf 1995). Viewed purely from a monetary perspective, a building has more value than a garden. However, the health, social and broader economic considerations discussed above suggest that community gardens are important parts of urban built environments (Zubrycki, 2006).

    Measurement and Limitations

    This indicator measures the number of square metres of space devoted to community gardens per capita at the community area and city levels. Categories of community gardens include those on city-owned land, individual allotments on city-owned land, gardens on land owned by Manitoba Hydro, community gardens on privately owned land, schoolyard gardens, and community supported agriculture projects (City of Winnipeg, 2011c).

    At the city level, the total area of community gardens is divided by the total number of residents in Winnipeg. At the community area level, community garden area is divided by the number of residents in each location. The City of Winnipeg (2011a) defines a community garden as "an open space that a group of citizens voluntarily manage where horticultural activities are practiced" (1). These individuals or community groups handle all aspects of garden membership, maintenance and programming.

    The data for this indicator do not include individual gardens on residential land (i.e., backyards), those outside of the city, or those that exist for commercial/research purposes.

    The data provided here measure only the area of community gardens per capita. Other important characteristics of community gardens are not taken into account in this indicator (e.g., soil fertility, volume/weight of food produced, number of citizens using gardens, etc.).

    References

    City of Winnipeg. (2011a). Allotment gardens/Community gardens. Retrieved from http://www.winnipeg.ca/publicworks/ParksandFields/CommunityGardens/communitygardens.asp

    City of Winnipeg. (2011b). Community garden policy. Retrieved from http://www.winnipeg.ca/publicworks/ParksandFields/CommunityGardens/Images/Garden%20Policy.pdf

    City of Winnipeg. (2011c). Community and allotment gardens of Winnipeg. Retrieved from

    http://www.winnipeg.ca/publicworks/ParksandFields/CommunityGardens/Garden%20website%20map/Large%20Map.pdf

    Dickinson, J., Duma, S., Kleinman, T., Paulsen, H., Rilveria, L., & Twiss, J. (2003). Community gardens: Lessons learned from California Healthy Cities and Communities. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1435-1438.

    Doyle, R., & Krasny, M. (2003). Participatory rural appraisal as an approach to environmental education in urban community gardens. Environmental Education Research, 9, 91-114.

    Glover, T.D., Parry, D.C., & Shinew, K.J. (2004). Leisure spaces as potential sites for interracial interaction: Community gardens in urban areas. Journal of Leisure Research, 36, 336-355.

    Holland, L. (2004). Diversity and connections in community gardens: A contribution to local sustainability. Local Environment, 9, 285-305.

    Howe, J. (2002). Planning for urban food: The experience of two UK cities. Planning Practice and Research, 17, 125-144.

    Jackson, C. (1996). Garden program provides a "growing experience." Journal of Housing and Community Development, 53, 41-45.

    Kurtz, H.E., & Smith, C.M. (2003). Community gardens and politics of scale in New York City. Geographical Review,93, 193-212.

    Myers, M.S. (1998). Empowerment and community building through a gardening project. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 22, 181-183.

    Schmelzkopf, K. (1995). Urban community gardens as contested space. Geographical Review, 85, 364-381.

    Zubrycki, K. (2006). Urban gardening: Cultivating more than just produce. Student paper 23. University of Winnipeg, Institute of Urban Studies.

    Census Indicators
    • Per capita garden area
    • Per capita garden area
  • Consumer price index
  • Consumer price index measures changes in how much we can buy with a certain amount of money.

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada CANSIM table 326-0021

    Rationale and Connections

    The CPI is a widely used indicator of changes in consumer prices and the rate of inflation.

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Measurement and Limitations

    CPI is calculated by comparing the cost of a fixed basket about 600 of goods and services purchased by consumers. As the basket contains a fixed set of goods and services, the index reflects only price change. Data is collected directly from survey respondents (who are required to respond), administrative files, other Statistics Canada surveys, and other sources. According to Statistics Canada: Generally, the factors affecting the quality of the CPI include: (i) The size and composition of the price samples of goods and services and outlets; (ii) The accuracy of the expenditure estimates used to assign weights; (iii) The frequency and speed of updating of the contents and weights of the CPI basket; (iv) The effectiveness of error detection and correction, and imputation methods for missing data; and (v) The application of appropriate methods of adjusting for quality change of goods and services in the CPI sample.

    References

    Stats Canada (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=2301&Item_Id=1565&lang=en

    Census Indicators
    • CPI
  • Core housing need
  • Core housing need measures the number of households whose housing: i) costs them more than 30% of their income, ii) requires major repairs, or iii) is not big enough for their family size.

    Data Sources

    Data for this indicator is obtained from the Canada Mortgage & Housing Corporation (www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/).

    This indicator can be explored in more depth using their Housing in Canada Online tool http://cmhc.beyond2020.com/

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2012. This data is updated every 5 years as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Adequate, suitable, and affordable housing is a crucial basic need. Individuals in core housing need are unable to meet one of these three standards, thereby placing a large stress on their resources and health (HRSDC, 2011). As housing costs often account for significant portions of household budgets, these costs could make the difference between comfortably meeting basic needs and substantial financial stress (HRSDC, 2011).

    Measurement and Limitations

    The Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CHMC) defines a household as being in core housing need if it is "unable to afford shelter that meets adequacy, suitability, and affordability norms. The norms have been adjusted over time to reflect the housing expectations of Canadians. Affordability, one of the elements used to determine core housing need, is recognized as a maximum of 30 per cent of the household income spent on shelter" (http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/corp/faq/faq_002.cfm).

    A household is considered adequate if it does not require major repairs. Suitability refers to having enough bedrooms for the size and makeup of households. Based on National Occupancy Standards, each cohabiting adult couple, unattached household member 18 years of age and over, same-sex pair of children under 18 years of age, and each additional boy or girl in the family (unless there are two opposite sex children under five years of age who would be expected to share a bedroom) are expected to have one bedroom. Finally, a household is deemed affordable if it costs less than 30 per cent of residents' before-tax income, including rent, mortgage, and utility payments. (HRSDC, 2011; CMHC, 2001b)

    This indicator is reported as the number of households that meet the above criteria. It should be noted that the data for Core Housing Need is reported for the Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area - an area that extends beyond the borders of the city and includes the City of Winnipeg plus the municipalities of West St. Paul, East St. Paul, Headingley, Richot, Tache, Springfield, Rosser, St. Francois Xavier, St. Clements, and the Brokenhead First Nation).

    This indicator does not include individuals that are homeless.

    References

    Canada Mortgage & Housing Corporation. (CMHC). (2001a). 2001 Participation and activity limitation survey: Issue 10 - Summary of the housing conditions of Canadians with disabilities aged 15 years and older who are living in a household in core housing need. Retrieved from http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/inpr/rehi/rehi_022.cfm

    Canada Mortgage & Housing Corporation. (CMHC). (2001b). 2001 Participation and activity limitation survey: Issue 5 - Profile of the housing conditions of Canadians aged 15 years and older with a learning disability. Retrieved from http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/inpr/rehi/rehi_020.cfm

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. (HRSDC). (2011). Definition - housing need. Retrieved from http://www4.hrsdc.gc.ca/gl.4ss.1ry@-eng.jsp?wrd=Housing Need&iid=41

    Census Indicators
    • Households below adequacy standard
    • Households below affordability standard
    • Households below suitability standard
    • Households in core housing need
  • Diabetes prevalence
  • Diabetes prevalence measures the percentage of people aged 19 or older who have been diagnosed with diabetes.

    Data Source

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2013). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2013. Retrieved fromhttp://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference//RHA_2013_web_version.pdf

    Rationale and Connections

    A significant number of Winnipeggers have diabetes, and in Manitoba diabetes is a major cause of heart disease, blindness, kidney failure and loss of limbs due to amputation. Diabetes prevention can reduce this burden of disease.

    According to the Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA), "Canadian adults with diabetes are twice as likely to die prematurely, compared to people without diabetes" (CDA, 2013). The cost to the provincial health care budget is significant: "People with diabetes incur medical costs that are two to three times higher than those without diabetes. A person with diabetes can face direct costs for medication and supplies ranging from $1,000 to $15,000 a year" (CDA, 2013).

    According to the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP), the increase in diabetes prevalence is likely due to: "first, longer survival of people with diabetes related to improvements in medical and self-care and second, continuing efforts around awareness and earlier identification of cases" (MCHP, 2013).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Diabetes prevalence measures the proportion of the population (aged 19 or older) with diabetes, as defined by hospitalization, physician visits, or prescriptions for diabetes medications.

    According to the MCHP: "The values shown here may be different from those provided by reports using the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (CCDSS) definition (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2008, 2009). CCDSS uses physician visits and hospitalizations to define cases over a two-year period. Our definition similarly used physician visits and hospitalizations, but covers a three-year period, and also includes residents receiving prescription drugs for diabetes (to take advantage of data available in Manitoba; see Glossary). There are also differences regarding the standard population used for adjustment and accumulation of cases over time."

    References

    Canadian Diabetes Association. (2013). The prevalence and costs of diabetes. Retrieved fromhttp://www.diabetes.ca/diabetes-and-you/what/prevalence/

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2013). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2013. Retrieved fromhttp://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference//RHA_2013_web_version.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Diabetes prevalence
  • Dwelling condition
  • Dwelling condition measures the percentage of homes in need of major repair.

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada: Census 2001-2006; NHS 2011

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated for each census year, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Dwelling condition is an indicator of the state of repair of housing - a key element of the built environment.

    Measurement and Limitations

    This indicator reports the percentage of dwellings reporting that major repairs are needed, where major repairs include items like "defective plumbing or electrical wiring, structural repairs to walls, floors or ceilings".

    Data from 2006 and earlier was part of the long-form of the Canadian Census. In 2011, the long-form was cancelled, and this question was made part of the National Household Survey (NHS). Though the questions are comparable, the NHS was a voluntary survey (with a 76% response rate in Manitoba), whereas the Census long-form was mandatory (with a 94% response rate). Though data quality is lower (worse) in the NHS, it remains comparable to previous years.

    References

    Statistics Canada 2013. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/index-eng.cfm

    Census Indicators
    • In need of major repair
  • Dwelling density
  • Dwelling density measures how many dwellings there are in a given amount of land. The graph shows the rate for every km2.

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada: Census 2001-2006; NHS 2011

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated for each census year, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Dwelling density is an indicator of land use, and is a key descriptor of the built environment. The built environment is strongly influenced by dwelling density: low densities generally require higher energy use, use more land that could be used for other purposes (e.g., agriculture) and have higher infrastructure costs. High densities can result in heavy loads on infrastructure and a concentration of pollutants (e.g., leading to poor air quality).

    Measurement and Limitations

    This indicator measures the total number of occupied private dwellings per km^2 populated neighbourhoods. Data from 2006 and earlier was part of the long-form of the Canadian Census. In 2011, the long-form was cancelled, and this question was made part of the National Household Survey (NHS). Though the questions are comparable, the NHS was a voluntary survey (with a 76% response rate in Manitoba), whereas the Census long-form was mandatory (with a 94% response rate). Though data quality is lower (worse) in the NHS, it remains comparable to previous years.

    References

    Statistics Canada (2013). http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/index-eng.cfm

    Census Indicators
    • Density
  • Educational attainment
  • Educational attainment measures the highest level of formal schooling community members have completed.

    Data source

    The data for this indicator are collected by Statistics Canada for each census year. Recent data can be accessed at: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/index-eng.cfm

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated for each census year, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Educational attainment is an important indicator of the knowledge, skills, and competencies individuals have that allow them to participate effectively in society and the economy. Highly educated individuals tend to be less prone to unemployment and have significantly higher lifetime earnings through income (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2011a). Studies have shown that educational attainment has an impact on many aspects of well-being, with higher education related to longer lives, greater participation in politics and the community, and lower crime (OECD, 2011a). Consequently, educational attainment provides a good indicator of individual well-being as well as whether students are being adequately prepared to meet the demands of the labour market.

    Educational attainment is closely connected to the economy and basic needs, and is commonly used as a proxy measure for the skills available in the population and the labour force (OECD, 2011b).

    With respect to basic needs, individuals with higher education levels tend to be less prone to unemployment and have significantly higher lifetime earnings from income (OECD, 2011a). Consequently, individuals with higher education levels are in a much better position to provide for the basic needs of themselves and their families.

    Educational attainment also links to health. Social determinants of health research indicates that educational attainment contributes to longer and healthier lives (Ross & Wu, 1996; Lleras-Muney, 2005). Part of this relationship links to behaviours associated with higher education: "The well-educated are less likely to smoke, are more likely to exercise, to get health check-ups, and to drink moderately" (Ross & Woo, 1995).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Educational attainment is measured as the highest level of formal education completed by individuals 25 and over. There are five levels of educational attainment measured: no certificate or diploma, a secondary school diploma or equivalent; a registered apprenticeship or other trades certificate or diploma; a college, CEGEP, or other non-university certificate or diploma; and a university degree, certificate, or diploma.

    This indicator only takes into account the highest level of education completed.

    References

    Aghion, P., & Howitt, P. (1998). Endogenous growth theory. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    Braunerhjelm, P., Acs, Z., Audretsch, D., & Carlsson, B. (2009). The missing link: Knowledge diffusion and entrepreneurship in endogenous growth. Small Business Economics, 34(2), 105-25.

    Lleras-Muney, A. (1995). The relationship between education and adult mortality in the United States. Review of Economic Studies, 72, 189-221.

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2011a). Compendium of OECD well-being indicators. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/4/31/47917288.pdf

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2011b). Education at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/2/48631582.pdf

    Ross, Catherine E. & Chia-ling Wu. (1995). The links between education and health." American Sociological Review, 60, 719-45.

    Ross, C.E. & C-L Wu. 1996. Education, age and the cumulative advantage in health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37(1), 104-120.

    Statistics Canada. (2006). Census guide 2B. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/ref/pdf/3901_D15_T1_V1-eng.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Bachelor or higher (%)
    • Bachelor or higher (%)
    • High school or equivalent (%)
    • High school or equivalent (%)
    • No certificate (%)
    • No certificate (%)
  • Food bank use
  • Food bank use measures the number of participants in Winnipeg Harvest's food bank and meal/snack programs on a monthly basis.

    Data Source

    HungerCount (2015). , Retrieved from: Food Banks Canada https://www.foodbankscanada.ca/Hunger-in-Canada/HungerCount-2015.aspx in consultation with Winnipeg Harvest.

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated annually.

    Rationale and Connections

    The use of food banks ultimately indicates the reliance of a population on the charitable services of the food bank for subsistence. It can reflect both, the efficacy of the food bank system in reaching a large number of people in need, and the number or proportion of people within a population with the need for food, usually due to poverty. Most food banks have a mission to share food with hungry families while undertaking other activities (such as training and learning opportunities) that moves communities towards a future where hunger is minimized and the services of a food bank are no longer required. Food bank use can also serve as a proxy for the economy as well as the effectiveness of social policies as food banks are often the first signs of economic trouble and/or income inequality (Food Banks Canada, 2010).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Food Banks Canada publishes an annual publication called HungerCount that analyses food bank use nationally and provincially. This data is collected once a year in March to reflect the number of people accessing food banks in a typical month. Winnipeg Harvest publishes food bank use statistics annually on a provincial level.

    References

    Food Banks Canada (2015). HungerCount 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.foodbankscanada.ca/getmedia/01e662ba-f1d7-419d-b40c-bcc71a9f943c/HungerCount2015_singles.pdf.aspx?ext=.pdf

    Food Banks Canada (2010). Fighting Hunger: Who's Hungry 2010 Profile of Hunger in the GTA. Retrieved from: http://www.dailybread.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/DBFB-0015-10WhosHungryReportFinalweb.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Food bank use
  • Gini coefficient
  • The Gini coefficient measures income inequality (higher numbers represent higher inequality).

    Data Source

    Calculated from Statistics Canada data (Census data)

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated for each census year, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Higher income inequality has been tied to decreased physical and mental health, poorer educational performance, increased violence, and decreased social mobility

    Measurement and Limitations

    The Gini coefficient is an often used indicator of income inequality, measuring the relative distribution of income. Some caution should be used when using the Gini coefficient. As a relative measure of income inequality, the same Gini coefficient can be derived from very different levels of overall income - a community with an average income of $1,000 per year can have a similar Gini coefficient to a community with an average income of $100,000 per year. Also, values represent overall income inequality and can represent very different income distribution curves.

    Data from 2006 and earlier was calculated from data obtained from the long-form of the Canadian Census. In 2011, the long-form was cancelled, and the income questions were made part of the National Household Survey (NHS). Though the questions are comparable, the NHS was a voluntary survey (with a 76% response rate in Manitoba), whereas the Census long-form was mandatory (with a 94% response rate). Though data quality is lower (worse) in the NHS, it remains comparable to previous years.

    References

    Statistics Canada 2013. from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/index-eng.cfm

    Census Indicators
    • Gini
  • Greenhouse gas emissions
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions measures all City of Winnipeg corporate sources of greenhouse gases, or carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, released into the atmosphere.

    Data Source

    This data was taken from the City of Winnipeg Status Report on the Corporate Climate Action Plan 2016

    http://clkapps.winnipeg.ca/dmis/viewdoc.asp?docid=15389

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Greenhouse gas emissions are a major contributor to climate change. Growing concentrations in the atmosphere are resulting in an increase in the global average temperature which directly affects climate patterns, ultimately affecting the health and wellbeing of ecosystems and societies. In 1992, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Rio de Janiero, Brazil first acknowledged the existence of climate change and has the stabilization of GHG concentrations as an objective (UNFCCC, 1992).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions shown in this indicator are measured as CO2e (Tonnes). The City of Winnipeg divides emissions into 5 sources: electricity, natural gas, E5.8 gasoline, B2 diesel and solid waste. While GHG emissions consist of a variety of gases, the province currently only reports on CO2. GHG emissions include; carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Hydroflurocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), water vapor (H2O) and ozone (O3), however, the City of Winnipeg only reports on CO2 emissions. Reporting is done on corporate greenhouse gas emissions only, not residential or private industrial use.

    References

    Province of Manitoba (2015). Manitoba Government Climate Change & Green Initiatives Online- July 2015, Retrieved from: http://www.gov.mb.ca/conservation/climate/climate_change.html

    UNFCCC (1992). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Online: http://unfccc.int/files/essential_background/convention/background/application/pdf/convention_text_with_annexes_english_for_posting.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • GHG emissions
    • GHG emissions amount
  • Greenhouse gas emissions
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions measures all City of Winnipeg corporate sources of greenhouse gases, or carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, released into the atmosphere.

    Data Source

    This data was taken from the City of Winnipeg Status Report on the Corporate Climate Action Plan 2016

    http://clkapps.winnipeg.ca/dmis/viewdoc.asp?docid=15389

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Greenhouse gas emissions are a major contributor to climate change. Growing concentrations in the atmosphere are resulting in an increase in the global average temperature which directly affects climate patterns, ultimately affecting the health and wellbeing of ecosystems and societies. In 1992, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Rio de Janiero, Brazil first acknowledged the existence of climate change and has the stabilization of GHG concentrations as an objective (UNFCCC, 1992).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions shown in this indicator are measured as CO2e (Tonnes). The City of Winnipeg divides emissions into 5 sources: electricity, natural gas, E5.8 gasoline, B2 diesel and solid waste. While GHG emissions consist of a variety of gases, the province currently only reports on CO2. GHG emissions include; carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Hydroflurocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), water vapor (H2O) and ozone (O3), however, the City of Winnipeg only reports on CO2 emissions. Reporting is done on corporate greenhouse gas emissions only, not residential or private industrial use.

    References

    Province of Manitoba (2015). Manitoba Government Climate Change & Green Initiatives Online- July 2015, Retrieved from: http://www.gov.mb.ca/conservation/climate/climate_change.html

    UNFCCC (1992). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Online: http://unfccc.int/files/essential_background/convention/background/application/pdf/convention_text_with_annexes_english_for_posting.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • GHG emissions
    • GHG emissions amount
  • Greenhouse gas emissions
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions measures all City of Winnipeg corporate sources of greenhouse gases, or carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, released into the atmosphere.

    Data Source

    This data was taken from the City of Winnipeg Status Report on the Corporate Climate Action Plan 2016

    http://clkapps.winnipeg.ca/dmis/viewdoc.asp?docid=15389

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Greenhouse gas emissions are a major contributor to climate change. Growing concentrations in the atmosphere are resulting in an increase in the global average temperature which directly affects climate patterns, ultimately affecting the health and wellbeing of ecosystems and societies. In 1992, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Rio de Janiero, Brazil first acknowledged the existence of climate change and has the stabilization of GHG concentrations as an objective (UNFCCC, 1992).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions shown in this indicator are measured as CO2e (Tonnes). The City of Winnipeg divides emissions into 5 sources: electricity, natural gas, E5.8 gasoline, B2 diesel and solid waste. While GHG emissions consist of a variety of gases, the province currently only reports on CO2. GHG emissions include; carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Hydroflurocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), water vapor (H2O) and ozone (O3), however, the City of Winnipeg only reports on CO2 emissions. Reporting is done on corporate greenhouse gas emissions only, not residential or private industrial use.

    References

    Province of Manitoba (2015). Manitoba Government Climate Change & Green Initiatives Online- July 2015, Retrieved from: http://www.gov.mb.ca/conservation/climate/climate_change.html

    UNFCCC (1992). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Online: http://unfccc.int/files/essential_background/convention/background/application/pdf/convention_text_with_annexes_english_for_posting.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • GHG emissions
    • GHG emissions amount
  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures the total value of goods and services produced.

    Data Source

    Economic Development Winnipeg (data produced by Conference Board of Canada) The Conference Board of Canada. (2013). Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Forecast. Retrieved from: http://www.economicdevelopmentwinnipeg.com/uploads/document_file/winnipeg_key_economic_indicators.pdf?t=1447188695

    The most recent data was made available in 2016. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the most widely used indicator of economic health. It is a measure of the total market value of goods and services produced within an area over a period of time. It includes personal consumption, government purchases, private inventories, paid-in construction costs and the foreign trade balance (exports are added, imports are subtracted).

    GDP aggregates production from different sectors of the economy to provide a picture of the overall level of economic activity occurring in the given jurisdiction over the given time period. It can be used as an indicator for economic activity but due to the way it is measured and what is included and excluded, important dimensions of prosperity can be left out (see Measurement and Limitations below) and therefore the indicator should therefore be used with caution when it is acting as a proxy for economic and societal wellbeing (Scwartz, 2010).

    Measurement and Limitations

    GDP is important as a measure of economic activity simply because it is the standard measure and is followed so closely. However, there are long standing criticisms of its usefulness as an indicator of economic prosperity more generally.

    As explained in the OECD Observer: "If ever there was a controversial icon from the statistics world, GDP is it. It measures income, but not equality, it measures growth, but not destruction, and it ignores values like social cohesion and the environment. Yet, governments, businesses and probably most people swear by it." (OECD, 2005)

    It is useful for determining (once inflation has been accounted for) whether the economy is expanding or contracting but the choices as to what is counted as 'production' may seem arbitrary; for example, taking care of one's own children does not count, but hiring a nanny does.

    GDP captures at least the wellbeing that results from the production of goods and services, but may miss out on broader aspects of wellbeing such as environmental integrity and social capital. For this reason, it is most appropriate to use it as one of a number of indicators of prosperity (Scwartz, 2010; OECD, 2007).

    References

    OECD. (2007). Is GDP a satisfactory measure of growth? OECD Observer, 246-247. Retrieved from: http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/archivestory.php/aid/1518/Is_GDP_a_satisfactory_measure_of_growth_.html

    Scwartz, J.D. (2010). Is GDP an Obsolete Measure of Progress? Time Magazine, January 30, 2010. Retrieved from: http://content.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1957746,00.html

    The Conference Board of Canada. (2013). Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Forecast. Retrieved from: http://www.conferenceboard.ca/e-data/data/gdp.aspx

    Census Indicators
    • GDP
  • Heart attack
  • The heart attack indicator measures the number of hospitalizations or deaths due heart attacks per 1,000 residents aged 40 and older.

    Data Source

    Fransoo R, Martens P, The Need To Know Team, Prior H, Burchill C, Koseva I, Bailly A, Allegro E. The 2013 RHA Indicators Atlas. Winnipeg, MB. Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, October 2013.http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/RHA_2013_web_version.pdf

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2014. This data is updated every 5 years as data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, are the leading causes of death globally, and represent a third of all deaths in Winnipeg in any given year. These diseases are also a leading cause of hospitalization and adult disability. Heart attacks and strokes are associated with social and economic disadvantage. Opportunities for employment, income, education, and housing have enormous potential to reduce the unequal burden of heart disease and stroke.

    Measurement and Limitations

    The Heart Attack indicator measures the number of hospitalizations or deaths resulting from heart attacks per 1,000 residents aged 40 and older. Heart Attack is defined by either: “At least one hospitalization with an ICD-9-CM code of 410 or an ICD-10-CA code of 121 and a length of stay (LOS) of at least three days or; [heart attack] listed as the cause of death in Vital Statistics files” (Fransoo, Martens, The Need To Know Team, Prior, Burchill, Bailly & Allegro, 2013). Rates are sex- and age- adjusted.

    References

    Fransoo R, Martens P, The Need To Know Team, Prior H, Burchill C, Koseva I, Bailly A, Allegro E. The 2013 RHA Indicators Atlas. Winnipeg, MB. Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, October 2013. http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/RHA_2013_web_version.pdf

    Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). 2009. 2009 Tracking Heart Disease and Stroke in Canada. Retrieved from:http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/2009/cvd-avc/summary-resume-eng.php

    Census Indicators
    • Heart Attack
  • High school graduation
  • High school graduation measures how many people are graduating from high school within six years of entering grade nine.

    Data Source

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (custom request)

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2014. This data is updated annually, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Education is strongly associated with long-term health and quality of life. Education and learning can be seen as a doorway out of poverty. High school graduation is commonly perceived as a minimum requirement for a well-paying job and higher education. Students who arrive at school hungry, without having enough sleep, or experiencing significant stress, are not ready to learn. There is growing evidence that investing in education, and removing barriers for youth at school, is an effective way to improve health.

    Education affects adults as well as children. We recognize that adult learners are accessing education and actively seeking learning opportunities that will contribute to productive livelihoods. This creates the conditions for children to have role models within their families, and for families to plan their future together.

    Measurement and Limitations

    High school graduation measures the percentage of students who complete high school within six years of starting grade nine. High school completion is defined by either (a) having accumulated sufficient high school course credits during high school, or (b) having 'had a Manitoba Department of Education student record that indicates graduation'. This indicator tracks a cohort of all students enrolled in Grade 9 over a six year period to determine which ones completed high school using Enrollment, Marks and Assessment Data from the Province of Manitoba (Manitoba Education and Advanced Learning).

    References

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (n.d.) custom data request.

    Census Indicators
    • Graduation Rate (6-yr)
  • Hospital days - long stays
  • Hospital days used in long stay hospitalizations is the combined total number of days spent in hospital for all residents who were hospitalized between 14 and 365 days (per thousand residents per year). All Winnipeg hospitals are included in these figures. Personal care homes, nursing stations, and long-term care facilities are excluded.

    Data Source

    Fransoo R, Martens P, The Need To Know Team, Prior H, Burchill C, Koseva I, Bailly A, Allegro E. The 2013 RHA Indicators Atlas. Winnipeg, MB. Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, October 2013. http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/RHA_2013_web_version.pdf

    Rationale and Connections

    This indicator measures health problems serious enough to need hospital care as well as medical and social complexities impacting discharge from hospital, including lack of appropriate housing or care arrangements.

    Measurement and Limitations

    This indicator is calculated on a yearly basis. Where patients have multiple long stays in one year, the days are summed. All transfers are taken into account so as to avoid double counting days spent in the hospital. Of note, the maximum amount of time a person is indicated to have stayed in a hospital is 365 days where, in some cases, patients may have been interned for periods longer than one year. This was done to remove influential outlying data from the dataset (Fransoo, Martens, The Need To Know Team, Prior, Burchill, Bailly & Allegro, 2013).

    Both in-province and out-of-province hospital stays were recorded for all Manitoban residents. In the case of births, newborn hospitalizations were excluded from the data, as too were stays in personal care homes and long-term care facilities (Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA), 2014).

    Previous to the 2014 WRHA Community Health Assessment report, Hospital Days -short stays were reported as length of stay from 1 to 29 days and Hospital Days - Long stays were reported as length of stay of 30 days or more. This data should be used with caution if comparisons are made with previous reporting periods.

    References

    Fransoo, R., Martens, P., The Need to Know Team, Prior, H., Burchill, C., Bailly, A. & Allegro, E. (2013). The 2013 RHA Indicators Atlas. Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, Winnipeg, MB.

    Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA). 2014. Community Health Assessment 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.wrha.mb.ca/research/cha2014/files/CHAReport2014.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Long stays
  • Household income
  • Household income measures the total income (before tax) of all members of a household.

    Data Source

    Data for this indicator was obtained from Statistics Canada. Neighbourhood and Community Characterization Area level data was obtained through the Winnipeg Data Consortium/Community Social Data Strategy (http://www.ccsd.ca/subsites/socialdata/home.html).

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Household income complements the low-income cut-offs-after tax (LICO-AT) and market basket measure (MBM) indicators in illustrating families' abilities to meet their basic needs. LICO-AT and MBM both measure how many individuals fall below the low-income threshold, while household income demonstrates the distribution of income levels throughout the City of Winnipeg. The household income indicator does not define any particular income level as "low income." Rather, it allows for a simple comparison of the number of households at different income levels.

    Household income is connected to Basic Needs and the Economy. Although income in itself does not necessarily equate to greater well-being, higher levels of household income tend to allow for greater expenditures on goods and services to fulfill basic needs and improve well-being. Households with higher incomes are able to spend more on education, health, entertainment, recreation, transportation, and other goods and services than households with lower incomes.

    Measurement and Limitations

    Statistics Canada defines a household as a person or a group of persons who live in the same residence (Statistics Canada, 2010). It includes a single family, two or more families, a group of unrelated people, or a person living alone. Household income combines all of their incomes without deducting taxes or other expenditures.

    This indicator identifies the number of households at different income levels, as well as the median income. The median income is the income level where half of households in the area have incomes above that amount and half have incomes below that amount. Median income is considered to be a better indicator than mean, or average, income because it is not affected by unusually high or low incomes (i.e., outliers).

    Household income is useful for making relative comparisons of the number of households at different income levels; however it does not provide any absolute measure of "low income" or "poverty."

    References

    Statistics Canada. (2010). 2006 Census Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/ref/dict/pdf/92-566-eng.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Median household income
  • Housing starts
  • Housing starts measures the number of new housing units in a community.

    Data Source

    City of Winnipeg

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Housing starts is an often-used indicator to track changes in the health of the economy. It is a leading indicator - changes in housing starts occur before general trends in the overall economy can be seen.

    Measurement and Limitations

    According to HRSDC, housing starts "shows the number of new residential units (homes, condominiums, and rental units) per 10,000 residents of a given geographic area, for which construction began in the reference year." Housing starts data collected by CMHC through their Starts and Completions Survey. Housing starts is a good and often-used proxy measure for the overall health of the economy. However, as a proxy measure, there are limitations on how representative the data can be of overall health of the economy.

    References

    City of Winnipeg (2014). Annual Financial Report. Available at: http://www.winnipeg.ca/finance/files/2014AnnualReport.pdf

    HRSDC (2013). Definition - Housing Starts. Available at: http://www4.hrsdc.gc.ca/gl.4ss.1ry@-eng.jsp?wrd=Housing Starts&iid=42

    Census Indicators
    • Total Housing Starts
  • Immunization rate
  • Immunization rates measure the percentage of 7-year-olds who have had the complete set of vaccinations for measles, mumps and rubella.

    Data Source

    Manitoba Immunization Monitoring System (MIMS), maintained by Manitoba Health. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://www.gov.mb.ca/health/publichealth/surveillance/reports.html

    The most recent data was made available in 2016. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Vaccination is generally considered to be one of the greatest public health achievements in modern times, and, according to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC): "Immunization has saved more lives in Canada than any other health intervention" (PHAC, 2006).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Immunization rates measure the percentage of 7-year-olds who have completed their immunization schedules for measles, mumps and rubella (two doses). The requirement for completion for measles is two doses, and the requirement for rubella and mumps is one dose. However, since they are all given together (they are not currently available as separate vaccines in Canada), complete coverage for MMR is considered to be two doses.

    References

    Hilderman T., Katz, A., Derksen, S., McGowan, K., Chateau, D., Kurbis, C., Allison, S., & Reimer, J.N. (2011, April). Manitoba Immunization Study. Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/MB_Immunization_Report_WEB.pdf

    Manitoba Health. (2011). Annual Immunization Surveillance Report, 2011. Retrieved fromhttp://www.gov.mb.ca/health/publichealth/surveillance/mims/reports/2011.pdf

    Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). (2006). Canadian immunization guide. Retrieved from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/cig-gci/

    Census Indicators
    • Immunization Coverage (age 7)
  • LICO-AT
  • The Low Income Cut-Offs After Tax (LICO-AT) measures the percentage of families that spend a higher than average percentage of their income on basic needs.

    Data Source

    Data for LICO-AT is not available at a sub-Winnipeg level for years after 2006. 2006-2010 data was obtained through the Data Consortium (http://www.ccsd.ca/subsites/socialdata/home.html). Data for prior years was obtained from Statistics Canada (www.statcan.gc.ca).

    Data for Winnipeg CMA and Canda was obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM table 206-0041.

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    The Low-Income Cut-off After-Tax (LICO-AT) is the most commonly used measure of low income in Canada (HRSDC, 2009). However, Statistics Canada has emphasized that LICO-AT is not a measure of poverty (Statistics Canada, 2008). Rather, LICO-AT is a measure that identifies levels of income below which Canadians are likely to spend a substantially larger proportion of their income on basic needs (i.e., food, clothing, shelter) than the average family, thereby reducing their expenditures on education, recreation, entertainment, and transportation, among other goods and services.

    Measurement and Limitations

    The LICO-AT is based on Canadian expenditure patterns. Cut-offs are set at income levels where a family would spend 20 percentage points more of their after-tax income than the average family on food, shelter, and clothing (HRSDC, 2009). This means that they are currently spending at least 63 per cent of their after-tax income on basic needs, rather than the average rate of 43 per cent.

    The cut-offs consider family size and area of residence. The cut-offs are calculated for seven different family sizes (one through six and seven or more) and five different community sizes (rural, small urban region, 30,000 to 99,999 residents, 100,000 to 499,999 residents, and 500,000 or more residents). As either one of these variables increases, the cut-off increases. For instance, a family of six living in Winnipeg has a cut-off of about $49,000, whereas an individual living in a rural area would have a cut-off of about $14,000 (Statistics Canada, 2005).

    The cut-offs remain constant in 1992 real dollars through being annually indexed to the national Consumer Price Index, such that an individual's 2008 income must be converted to 1992 real dollars to allow for accurate comparison to the appropriate cut-off (HRSDC, 2009).

    LICO-AT data prior to 2006 is reported for the Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, an area that extends beyond the borders of the city.

    References

    Human Resources and Skill Development Canada (HRSDC). (2009). Low income in Canada: 2000-2007: Using the market basket measure. Gatineau, Quebec: HRSDC. Retrieved from http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/publications_resources/research/categories/inclusion/2009/sp-909-07-09/sp_909_07_09e.pdf

    Statistics Canada. (2005). Low income after-tax cut-offs (1992 base) for economic families and persons not in economic families, 2005. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ref/dict/tables/table-tableau-17-eng.cfm

    Statistics Canada. (2008). Low income after-tax cut-offs (LICO-AT). Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ref/dict/fam019-eng.cfm

    Census Indicators
    • % low income, private households
    • % low income, private households
    • Per cent of people in low income (LICO)
    • Per cent of people in low income (LICO)
  • Life expectancy
  • Life expectancy at birth is an estimate of how long, on average, people can expect to live (from birth). This average is based on patterns from the five previous years.

    Data Source

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2013). Manitoba RHA indicator atlas 2013. Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference//RHA_2013_web_version.pdf

    Rationale and Connections

    Life expectancy at birth is one of the most commonly used indicators of overall health status. It reflects the mortality patterns of a population, and is often used for international comparisons. Life expectancy is related to such things as medical interventions (e.g., immunizations), good nutrition, hygiene and safe drinking water.

    Measurement and Limitations

    Life expectancy measures the number of years a newborn would be expected to live, assuming mortality patterns remain the same throughout its life. Life expectancy is an average-a specific person may die significantly before or after their life expectancy.

    The Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP) reports that "even small differences in life expectancy imply important differences in health status," and that "if all cancers could be eradicated, life expectancy for males would increase by approximately 3.8 years" (MCHP, 2013).

    Data are reported for two five-year periods: 2002-2006, and 2007-2011 (MCHP, 2013). It should be noted that rates are not sex- and age-adjusted. Some variation can be attributed to differences in age or sex composition of the populations.

    References

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2009). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2009. Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/RHA_Atlas_Report.pdf

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2013). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2013. Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference//RHA_2013_web_version.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Life expectancy at birth, female
    • Life expectancy at birth, male
  • Low employment
  • Percentage of individuals aged 18 to 64 with no employment income in any 3 or more of the last 6 years

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Calculations based on Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD)

    Rationale and Connections

    Low employment is an indicator that helps identify when there are people within a population who are having a particularly hard time finding and holding employment. It is a measurement that has received special policy attention at times, since individuals who are amongst the long-term unemployed often have more difficulty finding work than people experiencing shorter-term unemployment. Specific programming or interventions have been attempted to address this problem in different countries (Di Domenico and Spattini 2008).

    This indicator has connections to basic needs and the economy. People experiencing long-term unemployment may have a more difficult time gaining employment than those who have had shorter-term unemployment (Jackman and Layard 1991). This situation further erodes their ability to meet their needs. Even once they re-enter the job market, people who have experienced long-term unemployment have been shown to have continued lower earnings (Katz 2010).

    Long-term unemployment has also been linked to health and well-being. People experiencing long-term unemployment are more likely to experience social exclusion, demotivation and stigmatization (Lindsay 2010; Kieselbach 2004; OECD 1993). Social inclusion is one of many social determinants of health, which are conditions that people experience on a day-to-day basis, and which influence health in a less tangible and obvious way than do the environmental determinants of health (e.g. pollution). The long-term unemployed may also become more susceptible to poor mental and physical health in general (Statistics Canada 2000; OECD 1993). Individuals who already have health problems may be more likely to become part of the long-term unemployed (Goldberg et al., 2001).

    Measurement and Limitations

    It should be noted that "unemployment" generally refers to the percentage of people who do not have jobs and are actively seeking work (OECD n.d.). People who are not looking for work are generally not included in calculations. However, the low employment data provided by Statistics Canada includes both people without jobs who are not seeking work, as well as those who are. Data is reported on national, provincial, city and neighbourhood levels.

    References

    Di Domenico, G., And Spattini, S. (2008). New European Approaches to Long-Term Unemployment. The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International.

    Goldberg, R.W. et al. (2001). Correlates of Long-Term Unemployment Among Inner-City Adults with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness. Psychiatric Services, 57(10), 1435-1439.

    Jackman, R. and Layard, R. (1991) "Does long-term unemployment reduce a person's chance of a job? A time-series test". Economica, 58, 107-121.

    Katz, L.F. (2010). Long-term Unemployment in the Great Recession. Testimony for the Joint Economic Committee, U.S. Congress. Retrieved from: http://scholar.harvard.edu/sites/scholar.iq.harvard.edu/files/lkatz/files/long_term_unemployment_in_the_great_recession.pdf

    Kieselbach, T. (2004). Long-Term Unemployment among Young People: the Risk of Social Exclusion. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32, 69-76.

    Lindsay, C. (2010). In a Lonely Place? Social Networks, Job Seeking and the Experience of Long-Term Unemployment. Social Policy and Society, 9, 25-37.

    OECD (1993). Long-term unemployment: selected causes and remedies. In Employment outlook, 83-117. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/59/22/2485426.pdf

    OECD (n.d.). Main Economic Indicators. Retrieved from: http://stats.oecd.org/mei/default.asp?lang=e&subject=10 Statistics Canada (2000). Health Indicators. Retrieved from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-221-x/4060874-eng.htm

    World Bank (2012). Long-term unemployment (% of total unemployment). Retrieved from: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.LTRM.ZS

    Census Indicators
    • Long-term unemployment
  • Low employment
  • Percentage of individuals aged 18 to 64 with no employment income in any 3 or more of the last 6 years

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Calculations based on Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD)

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Low employment is an indicator that helps identify when there are people within a population who are having a particularly hard time finding and holding employment. It is a measurement that has received special policy attention at times, since individuals who are amongst the long-term unemployed often have more difficulty finding work than people experiencing shorter-term unemployment. Specific programming or interventions have been attempted to address this problem in different countries (Di Domenico and Spattini 2008).

    This indicator has connections to basic needs and the economy. People experiencing long-term unemployment may have a more difficult time gaining employment than those who have had shorter-term unemployment (Jackman and Layard 1991). This situation further erodes their ability to meet their needs. Even once they re-enter the job market, people who have experienced long-term unemployment have been shown to have continued lower earnings (Katz 2010).

    Long-term unemployment has also been linked to health and well-being. People experiencing long-term unemployment are more likely to experience social exclusion, demotivation and stigmatization (Lindsay 2010; Kieselbach 2004; OECD 1993). Social inclusion is one of many social determinants of health, which are conditions that people experience on a day-to-day basis, and which influence health in a less tangible and obvious way than do the environmental determinants of health (e.g. pollution). The long-term unemployed may also become more susceptible to poor mental and physical health in general (Statistics Canada 2000; OECD 1993). Individuals who already have health problems may be more likely to become part of the long-term unemployed (Goldberg et al., 2001).

    Measurement and Limitations

    It should be noted that "unemployment" generally refers to the percentage of people who do not have jobs and are actively seeking work (OECD n.d.). People who are not looking for work are generally not included in calculations. However, the low employment data provided by Statistics Canada includes both people without jobs who are not seeking work, as well as those who are. Data is reported on national, provincial, city and neighbourhood levels.

    References

    Di Domenico, G., And Spattini, S. (2008). New European Approaches to Long-Term Unemployment. The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International.

    Goldberg, R.W. et al. (2001). Correlates of Long-Term Unemployment Among Inner-City Adults with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness. Psychiatric Services, 57(10), 1435-1439.

    Jackman, R. and Layard, R. (1991) "Does long-term unemployment reduce a person's chance of a job? A time-series test". Economica, 58, 107-121.

    Katz, L.F. (2010). Long-term Unemployment in the Great Recession. Testimony for the Joint Economic Committee, U.S. Congress. Retrieved from: http://scholar.harvard.edu/sites/scholar.iq.harvard.edu/files/lkatz/files/long_term_unemployment_in_the_great_recession.pdf

    Kieselbach, T. (2004). Long-Term Unemployment among Young People: the Risk of Social Exclusion. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32, 69-76.

    Lindsay, C. (2010). In a Lonely Place? Social Networks, Job Seeking and the Experience of Long-Term Unemployment. Social Policy and Society, 9, 25-37.

    OECD (1993). Long-term unemployment: selected causes and remedies. In Employment outlook, 83-117. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/59/22/2485426.pdf

    OECD (n.d.). Main Economic Indicators. Retrieved from: http://stats.oecd.org/mei/default.asp?lang=e&subject=10

    Statistics Canada (2000). Health Indicators. Retrieved from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-221-x/4060874-eng.htm

    World Bank (2012). Long-term unemployment (% of total unemployment). Retrieved from: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.LTRM.ZS

    Census Indicators
    • Long-term unemployment
  • Low maternal education
  • This indicator measures the percentage of mothers of newborns who have not completed high school.

    Data source

    Data for maternal education are obtained through the Families First Screening and were provided by Healthy Child Manitoba (www.gov.mb.ca/healthychild/).

    The Families First Screening Form can be viewed online at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/healthychild/edi/pancan/pres_ffs.pdf (scroll down to slide number 5)

    More information on the Families First Screening Program can be found at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/healthychild/familiesfirst/index.html

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2014. The data is updated as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    The Families First Screen provides health service providers with important information on how families with newborns are adjusting to their new baby. A public health nurse asks a family with a newborn child about supports and challenges, including biological, social, and demographic factors, using the Families First Screening Form. Questions are related to birth weight, multiple births, alcohol use and smoking during pregnancy, mother's age, congenital anomalies, education, marital status, mental health, social isolation, and relationship distress (Healthy Child Manitoba (HCM), 2010).

    The purpose of the universal screening is twofold. First, it is used by public health staff to direct families to appropriate resources such as child care, parenting programs, financial assistance, or home visiting programs. Second, the information is used for tracking risk factors for policy development and planning services (HCM, 2010).

    The literature on childhood education and well-being broadly understands childhood resilience to be influenced by family, school, and community variables (Berzin, 2010; Brennan, 2008; Howard, Dryden, & Johnson, 1999; LaFromboise, Hoyt, Oliver, & Whitbeck, 2006). Low maternal education has been identified as a risk factor in children's well-being, with higher levels of maternal education linked to greater educational achievement of the child (Becker, 2009; Farkas & Beron, 1996; Sullivan, 2001).

    Literature links higher maternal education in the developed world to such measurements as healthier birth weight, better diets in children and increased physical activity (Cribb et al. 2011; Cutler & Lleras-Muney 2012; Zhong-Cheng et al. 2006), though the strength of the linkages are debated (e.g. Lindeboom et al. 2009).

    Measurement and Limitations

    This indicator is measured as the percentage of mothers of newborns whose highest level of education is less than Grade 12. The information is obtained through the Families First Screening Form,which is completed during the first home visit by a public health nurse after the birth of a baby.

    The Families First Screen is a questionnaire completed by a mother during the first home visit by a public health nurse after the birth of a baby. All answers are self-reported by the mother. The data for this indicator are based on a yes/no response from the mother on item 14 of the questionnaire, which reads "Mother's highest level of education completed is less than Grade 12" (HCM, 2010).

    Since the data are self-reported by the mother, this indicator is subject to social desirability bias. Social desirability bias is the tendency for respondents to answer questions in such a way that will be viewed favourably by the interviewer.

    Another limitation is that the survey only reflects the families who participated (it is sometimes difficult to locate families once they have left the hospital, and some families refuse to participate). It should be noted, however, that coverage rates are quite high - 95 per cent of all births of families with a postpartum referral (HCM, 2010).

    References

    Becker, B. (2009). The transfer of cultural knowledge in the early childhood: Social and ethnic disparities and the mediating role of familial activities. European Sociological Review, 26(1), 17-29.

    Berzin, S. (2010). Vulnerability in the transition to adulthood: Defining risk based on youth profiles. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(4), 487-495.

    Brennan, M. (2008). Conceptualizing resiliency: An interactional perspective for community and youth development. Child Care in Practice, 14(1), 55-64.

    Cribb, V.L., Jones, L.R., Rogers, I.S., Ness, A.R., & Emmett, P.M. (2011). Is maternal education level associated with diet in 10-year-old children? Public Health Nutrition, 14, 2037-2048.

    Cutler, D.M. & Lleras-Muney, A. (2012). Education and health: Insights from international comparisons. NBER Working Paper No. 17738. The National Bureau of Economic Research.

    Farkas, G. & Beron, K. (1996). Chapter 3: Family linguistic culture and the child's cognitive-skill development. In G. Farkas, Human capital or cultural capital? Ethnicity and poverty groups in an urban school district (pp. 21-32). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

    Healthy Child Manitoba (HCM). (2010). Families First program evaluation. Winnipeg, MB: Healthy Child Manitoba. Retrieved from http://www.gov.mb.ca/healthychild/familiesfirst/ff_eval2010.pdf

    Howard, S., Dryden, J., & Johnson, B. (1999). Childhood resilience: Review and critique of literature. Oxford Review of Education, 25(3), 307-323.

    LaFromboise, T.D., Hoyt, D.R., Oliver, L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (2006). Family, community, and school influences on resilience among American Indian adolescents in the Upper Midwest. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(2), 193-209.

    Lindeboom, M., Llena-Nozal, & Bas van der Klaauw, A. (2009). Parental education and child health: Evidence from a schooling reform. Journal of Health Economics, 28(1), 109-131.

    Luo, Z-C., Wilkins, R. & Kramer, M.S. (2006). Effect of neighbourhood income and maternal education on birth outcomes: A population-based study. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 174(10), 1415-1420.

    Sherar, L.B., Muhajarine, N., Esliger, D.W. & Baxter Jones, A.D.G.. (2009). The relationship between girls' (8-14 years) physical activity and maternal education. Annals of Human Biology, 36(5), 573-583.

    Sullivan, A. (2001). Cultural capital and educational attainment. Sociology, 35(4), 893-912.

    Census Indicators
    • Low maternal education
  • Market basket measure (MBM)
  • The market basket measure (MBM) is a measure of low income based on inability to afford a certain group of essential items.

    Data Source

    Data for the Market Basket Measure is not available at a sub-Winnipeg CMA level. Data was obtained from Statistics Canada, CANSIM table 206-0042. http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&id=2060042

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    The MBM is a useful measure for estimating the level of income individuals and families require to meet basic needs, specific to the costs of goods and services to their geographic location. The MBM arose out of a realization by Federal, Provincial, and Territorial Government Ministers that the costs of goods and services vary between geographical regions (HRSDC, 2009). Consequently, merely looking at household income across different geographical regions does not give a clear picture of the ability of individuals to meet their basic needs through disposable income.

    For instance, an individual living in rural Manitoba with a disposable income of $40,000 per year may be able to purchase the same quality and quantity of goods and services as an individual living in downtown Vancouver with a disposable income of $70,000 per year because of geographical variations in prices.

    The MBM is often used to complement measures such as low-income cut-offs-after tax (LICOs-AT), the low income measure, and household income, since MBM provides greater sensitivity to geographical variations in prices (HRSDC, 2009).

    The MBM is connected to Basic Needs. Individuals and families whose disposable income falls below the total cost of the specified basket of goods and services for their community are unable to purchase the goods and services deemed necessary to sustain a basic standard of living.

    Measurement and Limitations

    The MBM is a measure of low income based on the cost of a specified basket of goods and services. The basket includes specific quantities and qualities for a nutritious diet, clothing and footwear, shelter, transportation, and other household needs, such as school supplies, personal care products, telephone, furniture, and modest levels of entertainment and recreation (Hatfield, Pyper, & Gustajtis, 2010).

    Statistics Canada collects income data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) and data on the costs of goods and services in the specified basket to calculate low income thresholds in 48 geographical areas within the 10 provinces of Canada (HRSDC, 2009). Using this information, Statistics Canada estimates the basket costs for different geographical areas and family sizes.

    As defined by the MBM, a low-income person is someone whose disposable income falls below the cost of the goods and services in the Market Basket in their community or community size. For instance, a family of two adults and one child living in Winnipeg whose disposable income is $25,000 but whose basket cost is $28,000 would be defined as a low-income family. On the other hand, a single individual living in Fredericton whose disposable income is $20,000 but whose basket cost is $17,000 would not be defined as in low-income.

    MBM disposable income excludes total income taxes paid, the personal portion of payroll taxes, other mandatory payroll deductions such as contributions to employer-sponsored pension plans, supplementary health plans and union dues, child support and alimony payments made to another family, out-of-pocket spending on child care, and non-insured but medically prescribed health-related expenses such as dental and vision care, prescription drugs and aids for persons with disabilities (HRSDC, 2009).

    This data represents the number of individuals who fall below the market basket cost. It should be noted that the data for the Market Basket Measure is reported for the Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area - an area that extends beyond the borders of the city and includes the City of Winnipeg plus the municipalities of West St. Paul, East St. Paul, Headingley, Richot, Tache, Springfield, Rosser, St. Francois Xavier, St. Clements, and the Brokenhead First Nation. It should be noted noted that the data as presented here does not indicate the depth at which families fall below the low-income threshold. When given only the percentage of low-income households, it is not possible to tell how the families are distributed beneath the low-income threshold. In Peg's indicator system, the MBM can be used to complement the LICO-AT indicator, as MBM provides greater sensitivity to geographical differences in living costs.

    A note from Statistics Canada States that "Market Basket Measure (MBM) attempts to pmeasure a standard of living that is a compromise between subsistence and social inclusion. It also reflects differences in living costs across regions. The MBM represents the cost of a basket that includes: a nutritious diet, clothing and footwear, shelter, transportation and other necessary goods and services (such as personal care items or household supplies). The cost of the basket is compared to disposable income for each family to determine low income rates. Following a review by Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the shelter component of the MBM thresholds along with the disposable income definition have been revised. The revision takes effect in 2011 and includes an historical revision back to 2002 (the first year in which housing tenure information is available in SLID).

    References

    Hatfield, M., Pyper, W., & Gustajtis, B. (2010). First comprehensive review of the market basket measure of low income. Gatineau, Quebec: HRSDC. Retrieved from http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2011/rhdcc-hrsdc/HS28-178-2010-eng.pdf

    Human Resources and Skill Development Canada (HRSDC). (2009). Low income in Canada: 2000-2007: Using the market basket measure. Gatineau, Quebec: HRSDC. Retrieved from http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/publications_resources/research/categories/inclusion/2009/sp-909-07-09/sp_909_07_09e.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Per cent of people in low income (MBM)
    • Total persons in low income (MBM)
  • Mood and anxiety disorders
  • Mood and anxiety disorders measures how many people have been diagnosed with a mood or anxiety disorder in the last five years.

    Data Source

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. 2013. Manitoba RHA Indicator Atlas 2013, available at: http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference//RHA_2013_web_version.pdf

    The data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated every 5 years as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Mood and anxiety disorders is an indicator of mental health - a major component of Winnipeggers' wellbeing. Mental health is defined as "a state of well-being in which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community" (WHO 2011). Mood and anxiety disorders, and mental illness more broadly, have effects on many aspects of wellbeing, including:

    (1) Employment: the unemployment rate of people with serious mental illnesses is in the range of 70% to 90% (CMHA 2013).

    (2) Safety: people with mental illnesses are more than twice as likely to be victims of crime (Mood Disorders Society of Canada 2009).

    (3) Physical health: mental and physical health are intimately linked. The social determinants of health, for instance, affect not just physical health, but also mental health. According to the CMHA (2013b), "(1) poor mental health is a risk factor for chronic physical conditions; (2) people with serious mental health conditions are at high risk of experiencing chronic physical conditions; and (3) people with chronic physical conditions are at risk of developing poor mental health".

    (4) The economy: according to the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, "the economic burden of mental illness in Canada is estimated at $51 billion per year" (CAMH 2013).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Mood and anxiety disorders measures how many people (10 years and older) have been diagnosed with a mood or anxiety disorder within a five years period. Mood and anxiety disorders include: depression, bipolar disorder, manic episodes, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, phobic disorders, dissociative disorders, and somatoform disorders. Data were put together based on data from physician visits, hospitalizations, and prescription drug use.

    References

    Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA). 2013a. Employment. Available at:http://www.cmha.ca/mental-health/find-help/employment/

    Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA). 2013b. Connection between mental and physical health. Available at:http://ontario.cmha.ca/mental-health/connection-between-mental-and-physical-health/

    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH). 2013. Mental Illness and Addiction Statistics. Available at:http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/about_camh/newsroom/for_reporters/Pages/addictionmentalhealthstatistics.aspx

    Mood Disorders Society of Canada. 2009. Quick Facts: Mental illness and addiction in Canada. 3rd Edition. Available at:http://www.mooddisorderscanada.ca/documents/Media%20Room/Quick%20Facts%203rd%20Edition%20Referenced%20Plain%20Text.pdf

    WHO 2011. Mental health: a state of well-being. Available at:http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/en/

    Census Indicators
    • Mood and anxiety disorders
  • Neighbourliness
  • Neighbourliness measures the percentage of the population that knows many or most of their neighbours.

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada (n.d.) General Social Survey. Retrieved from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89f0115x/89f0115x2013001-eng.htm

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2014. This data is updated annually, as it is made available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Neighbourliness is a measure of social capital in our community - the networks and connections between individuals. These connections build trust, and norms of social reciprocity. Knowing neighbours can help to create a sense of community, increases peoples' feelings of safety and can help prevent crime (people looking out for each other).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Neighbourliness measures the percentage of people who said that they know many or most of their neighbours. Data for this indicator is obtained from Statistics Canada's General Social Survey. The survey collects data from people in all provinces via telephone interviews. The intention of the survey is to provide national and provincial estimates. Sample sizes for municipal estimates are small, so results may show greater variability from year to year, and should be used with caution.

    Due to the survey methods (telephone interview), response rates vary by population. Some population groups are under-represented: "those who tend to have only cell phones (e.g. young, single, urban Canadians) or those without a telephone (e.g. those with lower incomes and education levels)" (Statistics Canada 2009). Statistics Canada reports that coverage is good, "but has been declining in recent years with the increase in cell-phone only households. Response rates for the GSS are between 57% and 83%, depending on the year and survey topic" (Statistics Canada 2009). The General Social Survey is now undertaken every 5 years.

    References

    OECD. OECD Insights - Human Capital. What is social capital? Available at: http://www.oecd.org/insights/37966934.pdf

    Statistics Canada. 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89f0115x/89f0115x2009001-eng.htm

    Census Indicators
    • Neighbourliness
  • Parks & open space
  • Parks and open space measures the amount of land used as parks or open spaces.

    Data Source

    City of Winnipeg

    Rationale and Connections

    Parks and open space are a key link between the built environment and other aspects of wellbeing including the natural environment, health, social vitality, and the economy. In addition to being a space for environmental education, parks and open spaces have a wide range of positive environmental effects: they can reduce atmospheric pollution, reduce erosion (by stabilizing riverbanks), and can provide habitat for wildlife.

    There are both positive and negative linkages with health. Negative linkages include allergies (e.g., asthma and hay fever), disease (e.g., West Nile), and potential exposure to pesticides used to maintain parks. However, these negative consequences are outweighed by a wide range of positive effects.

    Parks and open spaces provide a location for outdoor recreational activities at a time when 42% of the adult population (20 years and over) in the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority are either overweight or obese (WRHA 2013). They also provide a space for other recreational activities and social interaction, helping to build community and maintain the social vitality of a community. Finally, viewing natural environments have been shown to improve emotional well-being and reduce stress (Morris 2003).

    Parks and open spaces make communities more attractive, making them more attractive for employers. Plantscapes have been shown to have positive impacts in terms of worker satisfaction (Randall et al. 1992; Parker 1992), and parks and open spaces can provide significant savings to the economy through reduced health (see above) and infrastructure costs (by reducing water runoff and erosion).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Open space is an indicator of land use. It measures the percentage of land that is parks and open space, and the number of hectares of parks and open space per capita. Data does not change significantly from year to year, and is reported biennially.

    References

    Morris, N. 2003. Health, Well-Being and Open Space: Literature Review. http://www.openspace.eca.ac.uk/pdf/healthwellbeing.pdf

    Parker, D. C. (1992) 'The corporate garden', in Relf, D. (ed) The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

    Randall, K., Shoemaker, C. A., Relf, D. and Geller, E. S. (1992) 'Effects of plantscapes in an office environment on worker satisfaction', in Relf, D. (ed) The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon pp. 106 - 109.

    WRHA 2013. Life Long Wellness: http://www.wrha.mb.ca/healthinfo/prohealth/wellness.php

    Census Indicators
    • Area parks, open space per 1000 people
    • Percent parks and open space
  • Participation in arts
  • Participation in arts is a measure of the number of participants in cultural events in Winnipeg.

    Data Source:

    Winnipeg Arts Council upon request

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated annually, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections:

    The arts are a critical element of any community's social vitality. The arts help define our identity, they attract tourists and residents, and give life to the community. Extracurricular activities, including the arts, have been shown to reduce the likelihood of participants to join gangs. The arts contribute significantly to the economy - Canadian exports of cultural products were valued at almost $1.3 billion in 2010 (Statistics Canada 2012).

    Measurement and Limitations:

    Figures are based on self-reported statistics from organizations that applied for funding to the Winnipeg Arts Council each year.

    The Winnipeg Arts Council funds almost every cultural event in Winnipeg, and keeps audience statistics reported by the host organizations. Since some cultural events are not counted in these totals the actual number of participants is higher. These figures do not include museums.

    References:

    Statistics Canada (2012): http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/87-007-x/2011001/t001-eng.htm

    Census Indicators
    • Total participants
  • Participation in arts
  • Participation in arts is a measure of the number of participants in cultural events in Winnipeg.

    Data Source

    Winnipeg Arts Council, upon request

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2014. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    The arts are a critical element of any community's social vitality. The arts help define our identity, they attract tourists and residents, and give life to the community. Extracurricular activities, including the arts, have been shown to reduce the likelihood of participants to join gangs. The arts contribute significantly to the economy - Canadian exports of cultural products were valued at almost $1.3 billion in 2010 (Statistics Canada 2012).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Figures are based on self-reported statistics from organizations that applied for funding to the Winnipeg Arts Council in 2013.

    The Winnipeg Arts Council funds almost every cultural event in Winnipeg, and keeps audience statistics reported by the host organizations. Since some cultural events are not counted in these totals the actual number of participants is higher. These figures do not include museums.

    References

    Statistics Canada (2012): http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/87-007-x/2011001/t001-eng.htm

    Census Indicators
    • Total participants
  • Participation rate
  • The participation rate measures the percentage of people of working age that are part of the labour force (either working or looking for work).

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada. CANSIM table 282-0135. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2820135&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=37&tabMode=dataTable&csid=

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated annually, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    The participation rate is an important measure of our economic wellbeing because it shows the size of the labour force relative to the size of the working age population. In other words, because the size of the labour pool can limit potential economic productivity,, it indicates economic potential (or lack thereof). In comparison, the unemployment rate only captures people looking for work, meaning that potential employees that are dropping out of the labour force because of a lack of employment opportunities or other reasons, do not get counted.

    Measurement and Limitations

    Statistics Canada (2011) reports,the participation rate as the total labour force, whichthey define as beingcomprised of the sum total of the number of people that are are employed and unemployed, relative to the size of the working-agepopulation. In other words, it is the share of the working-age population that is working or looking for work (Statistics Canada 2008).

    References

    Statistics Canada (2008). Participation rates. Retrieved from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/71-222-x/2008001/sectiona/a-participation-activite-eng.htm

    Statistics Canada. (2011). Guide to the Labour Force Survey: Retrieved from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/71-543-g/71-543-g2011001-eng.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Participation rate
  • Perceived health
  • Self-rated health measures the percentage of people who say their health is 'good' or 'very good' in response to the question: "In general, would you say your health is: 'excellent,' 'very good,' 'good,' 'fair' or 'poor'?"

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada. (2014). CANSIM Table 105-0501: Health indicator profile, annual estimates, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2012 boundaries) and peer groups. Retrieved fromhttp://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1050501&pattern=&csid=

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated annually, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Perception of health is an important part of people's subjective well-being and is a common indicator of overall health status.

    In less-healthy areas, fewer people responded with "Excellent," and more answered "Fair" or "Poor." That being said, results were quite similar across all regional health authorities in Manitoba. In urban areas, the answers "Excellent" and "Very Good" were more common in higher income areas, while "Good" and "Fair/Poor" answers were more common in lower-income areas. In rural areas, "Excellent" and "Very Good" answers were not related to income. "Very Good" and "Fair"/ "Poor" rates were associated to area-level income, but in opposite directions (MCHP, 2009, p. 431).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Self-rated health measures people's responses to the question: "In general, would you say your health is: excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?" and given the clarification, "By health, we mean not only the absence of disease or injury but also physical, mental and social well-being." As a self-assessment, it can capture elements related to well-being that cannot be captured clinically, such as "incipient disease, disease severity, physiological and psychological reserves, and social function" (Statistics Canada, 2010).

    According to Statistics Canada (2010):

    "Studies have demonstrated that this is a reliable and valid measure, associated with functional decline, morbidity and mortality. As well, perceived health is often more effective than clinical measures for predicting help-seeking behaviours and health service use. Perceived health is a relative measure-evidence suggests that people assess their health in relation to their circumstances and expectations, and their peers."

    Answers of "Fair" and "Poor" were combined to prevent suppression. Those who answered "I don't know" were not included. Results from 2000-2005 were included (Manitoba RHA Indicators Atlas 2009, 428).

    Data are reported for the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA). It should be noted that 2012 data use new boundaries from previous years' data-the former Churchill Regional Health Authority (RHA) has been integrated into the WRHA. The Churchill RHA has a very small population (approximately 1,000 individuals), but may have affected the figures somewhat.

    References

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2009). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2009. Retrieved fromhttp://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/RHA_Atlas_Report.pdf Statistics Canada. (2010). Perceived health. Retrieved from

    Census Indicators
    • Perceived health
  • Perception of safety
  • Perception of safety measures the percentage of people that feel safe walking in their neighbourhood alone at night.

    Data Source

    City of Winnipeg Citizen Survey. Online copies of each survey may be found at http://www.winnipeg.ca/interhom/CityHall/surveys.stm

    The most recent data was made available in 2015. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Perceived safety is an important indicator of people's comfort within their neighbourhoods. It affects behavior-for instance, the activities they take part in, their mode of transportation, and places they go. Close to two out of every five Canadians have taken precautionary measures to protect themselves from crime within the past year (Statistics Canada, 2009). Perceptions of safety reflect people's direct and indirect exposure to crime, but may not reflect actual levels of crime or risk of being a victim of crime. Other factors that impact peoples' perceptions of safety include demographics (e.g., age, gender), socioeconomic status (e.g., income), and the built environment (e.g., lighting).

    Measurement and Limitations

    A person's perception of their own personal safety in this sense is determined by whether they agree or somewhat agree that they feel safe walking alone at night in their neighborhood. This question is asked to the participants of the City of Winnipeg Citizen Satisfaction survey. The results are reported only at the city level, and are not broken down by gender, age, or geography.

    References

    City of Winnipeg. (n.d.). Citizen Surveys. Retrieved fromhttp://www.winnipeg.ca/interhom/CityHall/surveys.stm

    Statistics Canada. (2009). Canadians' perceptions of personal safety and crime, 2009. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2011001/article/11577-eng.htm

    Census Indicators
    • Perception of safety
  • Personal disposable income
  • Personal disposable income measures how much money is available for personal spending after taxes and other amounts are deducted.

    Data Source

    Economic Development Winnipeg. (2016). Personal and Disposable Income per Capita - Winnipeg, Census Metropolitan Area, Manitoba and Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.economicdevelopmentwinnipeg.com/uploads/document_file/personal_disposable_income_per_capita.pdf?t=1418331678

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This is updated annually as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Disposable income and wealth are the two most important determinants of the level of household consumption (Macklem, 1994), and as such disposable income is an important indicator of economic well-being. Personal disposable income measures how much money is available for personal spending and saving after paying income taxes and pension contributions to the government. It represents the money available to a household for spending on goods or services or saving and investment and reflects the true purchasing power of the consumer. If disposable personal income increases then consumer buying power has likely increased. This is a good indicator that consumption could rise, but in practice this relationship is complex (Tainer, 2006). This is because what a person ultimately does with their disposable income depends partly on their level of wealth, since a relatively poorer person will have a higher marginal propensity to consume than a relatively richer one, (i.e. they will spend more of their disposable income than a richer person will on consuming instead of saving). Along with household financial wealth, disposable income is used in the OCED's Better Life Index as the main indicator for the Income category (OECD, 2013)

    Measurement and Limitations

    According to Statistics Canada, personal disposable income is defined as the amount left over after payment of personal direct taxes, including income taxes, contributions to social insurance plans (such as the Canada Pension Plan contributions and Employment Insurance premiums) and other fees. It is a measure of the funds available for personal expenditure on goods and services and personal saving for investments as well as personal transfers to other sectors of the economy. Because the share of disposable income that ends up going toward consumption is also driven not only by disposable income but by wealth as well, disposable income may be a more effective indicator of economic well-being when understood alongside measures of wealth.

    References

    Economic Development Winnipeg. (2014). Personal and Disposable Income per Capita - Winnipeg, Census Metropolitan Area, Manitoba and Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.economicdevelopmentwinnipeg.com/uploads/document_file/personal_disposable_income_per_capita.pdf?t=1418331678

    Macklem, R. T. (1994). Wealth, disposable income and consumption: some evidence for Canada. Bank of Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.econ2.jhu.edu/people/ccarroll/papers/cos-wealtheffects-literature/papers/macklem.pdf

    OECD. (2013). Better Life Index. Retrieved from: http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/

    Statistics Canada. (2007). Review of Personal Disposable Income. Retrieved from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-605-x/2003001/chrono/2003prov/4151911-eng.htm

    Tainer, E. M. (2006). Using economic indicators to improve investment analysis (Vol. 315). Retrieved from: http://books.google.ca/books?id=a55R0SbKZRUC&pg=PA71&lpg=PA71&dq=using disposable income as an indicator&source=bl&ots=YN5nU0S3gm&sig=BFHdL4zMm3vD9oYvTaD0ZVe-J00&hl=en&as=X&ei=SWLxUuSGG8il2wWFtICIAw&ved=0CGYQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=using%20disposable%20income%20as%20an%20indicator&f=false

    Census Indicators
    • Disposable income per capita
    • Personal Disposable Income
  • Personal safety
  • Personal safety looks at the number of assaults, homicides, sexual assaults and robberies per 1,000 people.

    Data Source

    Data for this indicator is obtained from the Winnipeg Police Service (WPS) (www.winnipeg.ca/police).

    This data is also published in WPS annual reports, along with other crimes against persons, crimes against property, and other crimes (http://www.winnipeg.ca/police/AnnualReports/annualreports.stm).

    An interactive map of crime incidences in Winnipeg can be found on the WPS Crimestat website at http://winnipeg.ca/CrimeStat/.

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Personal safety as defined by the number of crimes (per 1,000 people) against persons (assaults, homicides, sexual assaults, and robberies) is an important component of well-being. Crimes against persons not only have strong negative effects on the well-being of victims, they affect the entire community (WPS, 2009). Current residents may restrict their use of public recreational spaces where crimes have been known to occur, and potential residents may be less inclined to move into and open businesses in areas with high levels of crime. Safe communities, as indicated partly by reductions in crime, provide a better quality of life for residents, improve opportunities for investment, tourism, and economic development generally, and enhance social vitality (City of Winnipeg, 2010).

    Personal safety is connected to Basic Needs. Both being and feeling safe in one's community is an essential precondition for achieving well-being. When personal safety is enhanced, community residents are better able to participate in the social and economic life of the community (City of Winnipeg, 2010).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Personal Safety looks at the number of crimes against persons. This indicator looks specifically at the number of incidents involving assaults, homicides, sexual assaults, and robberies. The incidents included in this data set are reported incidents, rather than convictions. All incidents are recorded according to where they took place, rather than where the victim lives, and reflect the total number of victims.

    This data set does not include incidents that have not been reported to the police. This data set does not include all "crimes against persons" as based on uniform crime reporting used by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics.

    This data set also does not include "crimes against property," including break & enters, motor vehicle thefts, non-motor vehicle thefts, stolen goods, fraud, arson, and mischief, or "other crimes," including prostitution, possession of firearms/offensive weapons, and other criminal code violations (WPS, 2009).

    References

    City of Winnipeg. (2010). Our Winnipeg, It's our city, it's our plan, it's our time. Retrieved from http://www.winnipeg.ca/ppd/OurWinnipeg/pdf/OurWinnipeg.Jul15.2010.pdf

    Winnipeg Police Service (WPS). (2009). Winnipeg Police Service annual report. Retrieved from http://www.winnipeg.ca/police/annualreports/2009/2009_wps_annual_report_english.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Safety
  • Political voice
  • Political voice measures the percentage of Winnipeggers who volunteered for a political party, attended a public meeting or purchased a product for ethical reasons.

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada. (2013). General social survey - Giving, volunteering and participating.

    Rationale and Connections

    The percent of the population volunteering for a political party, attending a public meeting or purchasing a product for ethical reasons is an indicator of citizen's involvement in the democratic process (by investing time in policy and issue development, political organizing, and using purchasing power to influence policy change).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Data for this indicator were obtained from the Canada General Social Survey (GSS). This is a national survey, and the sample size is quite limited. Data for some years are suppressed, and the remaining figures should be used with some caution.

    References

    Statistics Canada. (2010). Caring Canadians, involved Canadians. Retrieved fromhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/71-542-x/71-542-x2009001-eng.pdf

    Statistics Canada. (2013). General social survey - Giving, volunteering and participating. Retrieved fromhttp://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=4430&Item_Id=144100&lang=en

    Census Indicators
    • Ethical purchase
    • Political party
    • Public meeting
    • ethicalpurchase
    • politicalparty
    • public meeting
  • Potential years of life lost
  • Potential years of life lost (PYLL) measures the total number of years that could have been lived (per 1,000 individuals in an area), if each person who died before age 75 in an area had lived to 75 years of age.

    Data Source

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2013). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2013. Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference//RHA_2013_web_version.pdf

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2012. This data is updated every 5 years as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL) is often reported as an alternative measure of premature mortality, but is designed to give a greater weight to young deaths than to older deaths. There are strong connections between income earned and PYLL, and rates are highest in low-income areas (Manitoba RHA Indicator Atlas 2009, p. 67).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Like premature mortality rate, PYLL also looks at deaths before the age of 75, but it excludes children under the age of one. PYLL is calculated by multiplying the number of deaths at each age by the years between that age and 75. As an example, each death at the age of 30 would contribute 45 years to PYLL (= 75 - 30).

    PYLL is designed to capture the impact of premature mortality-a younger death will result in a greater number of potential years life lost, so PYLL rates "give an indication of whether the premature deaths are occurring among relatively younger or older 'under 75' residents" (Manitoba RHA Indicator Atlas 2009, p. 33).

    Rates were calculated for two five-year periods, 2002-2006, and 2007-2011 (from MCHP, 2013). It should be noted that these rates are not sex- and age-adjusted, so some variation can be attributed to differences in age or sex composition of the populations.

    References

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2009). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2009. Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/RHA_Atlas_Report.pdf

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2013). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2013. Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference//RHA_2013_web_version.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Potential years of life lost
  • Pregnancies with mult. risk factors
  • Multiple risk factors measures the percentage of pregnancies where there are three or more factors that put families at risk (e.g., alcohol or tobacco use, mental health issues, financial challenges, mothers who have not completed high school).

    Data Source

    Data for this indicator is retrieved from Families First Screening and provided by Healthy Child Manitoba (www.gov.mb.ca/healthychild/ )

    Rationale and Connections

    This indicator is a signpost for the health of Winnipeg’s future generations. Pregnancies with one or more of the Families First risk factors have a higher chance of long term effects on the development and health of the child (WRHA, 2014). The WRHA Community Health Report considers pregnant mothers with more than three risk factors to be at high risk.

    Measurement and Limitations

    Pregnancies with three or more risk factors measures the percentage of pregnancies where there are three or more factors that put families at risk.

    The purpose of the Families First Screen form is to identify appropriate supports and challenges for families. Through this system, public health nurses can connect pregnant mothers with social, mental health and financial support systems available to them.

    The Families First Program risk factors are related to child development and health. Taken from Healthy Child Manitoba’s Families First Screening, the five factors include mothers’ tobacco use, alcohol use, rate of depression and anxiety, educational attainment less than high school, and financially difficult socioeconomic status during pregnancy.

    The Families First Screening data only includes data for mothers who have agreed to participate in the Families First Program from 2003 to the present date. It is estimated that 83 percent of all births in Manitoba are currently screened (MCHP, 2015).

    The data is collected within a week of a Public Health Nurse discharging a newborn from the hospital using the Families First Screening Form. This form includes information such as ethnic background, alcohol and drug use, history of anxiety disorders and depression, child abuse, criminal involvement, education and the child’s physical and medical characteristics (MCHP, 2015). Questions about drug and alcohol use by pregnant mothers are presented separately to the rest of the data with detailed questions regarding alcohol consumption.

    Previous to 2003, this information was collected under the Baby First Screen.

    References

    The Families First Screening Form can be viewed online at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/healthychild/edi/pancan/pres_ffs.pdf

    More information on the Families First Screening Program can be found at http://www.gov.mb.ca/healthychild/familiesfirst/index.html

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). 2015. Families First Screen. Retrieved from http://umanitoba.ca/faculties/health_sciences/medicine/units/community_health_sciences/departmental_units/mchp/resources/repository/descriptions.html?ds=FamiliesFirst

    Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA). (2014). Community Health Assessment 2014. Retrieved from:http://www.wrha.mb.ca/research/cha2014/files/CHAReport2014.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Multiple risks
  • Premature mortality rate (PMR)
  • Premature mortality rate (PMR) is a yearly measure of the proportion of people in a certain area who die before reaching age 75.

    Data Source

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2013). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2013. Retrieved from "http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference//RHA_2013_web_version.pdf

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated annually, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    According to the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (2013): "The premature mortality rate is considered the best single indicator of the overall health status of a region's population and need for healthcare (Carstairs & Morris, 1991; Eyles & Birch, 1993; Eyles, Birch, Chambers, Hurley, & Hutchison, 1991). PMR is correlated with morbidity and with self-rated health, as well as with socioeconomic indicators (Martens, Frohlich, Carriere, Derksen, & Brownell, 2002a). Populations having a high PMR are presumed to need more healthcare services than healthier populations." A lower PMR (i.e., a lower rate of individuals dying prior to 75 years of age) is an indicator of better overall health status, while a higher PMR is an indicator of worse overall health status. A higher PMR in a given population may be an indication of factors such as a higher incidence of disease, less access to healthcare services, higher rates of deaths as a result of injury (suicides, accidental falls, motor-vehicle accidents, poisonings), or riskier social behaviours (smoking, drinking, etc.). It is also presumed that populations with a higher PMR require more healthcare services than healthier populations (MCHP, 2009).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Premature mortality rate measures a region's number of residents who died before the age of 75 per 1,000 residents under age 75. The PMR was calculated by the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP) using data from the Population Health Research Data Repository It should be noted that rates are not sex- and age-adjusted, so some variation can be attributed to differences in age or sex composition of the populations. Data from the Repository was collected from hospital administrative records when a health or social service was administered.

    References

    Carstairs, V. & Morris, R. (1991). Deprivation and health in Scotland. Aberdeen, Scotland: Aberdeen University Press.

    Eyles, J. & Birch, S. (1993). A population needs-based approach to health-care resource allocation and planning in Ontario: A link between policy goals and practice? Canadian Journal of Public Health, 84, 112-117.

    Eyles, J., Birch, S., Chambers, S., Hurley, J., & Hutchison, B. (1991). A needs-based methodology for allocating health care resources in Ontario, Canada: Development and an application. Social Science & Medicine, 33, 489-500.

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2009). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2009. Retrieved fromhttp://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/RHA_Atlas_Report.pdf

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2013). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2013. Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference//RHA_2013_web_version.pdf

    Martens PJ, Frohlich N, Carriere K, Derksen S, Brownell M. Embedding child health within framework of regional health: population health status and sociodemographic indicators. Can J Public Health. 2002a;93 (Suppl 2):S15-S20.

    Census Indicators
    • Premature mortality rate
  • Public transit use
  • Public transit use measures to how many people take the bus. The public transit use indicator includes two pieces: (1) Ridership, which is the average number of times Winnipeggers take the bus in a year; and (2) Total taking public transit, which measures the percentage of people who take the bus to get to work (as their primary method).

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada collects data for transportation to/from work each census year. Recent data can be accessed at: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/index-eng.cfm

    Winnipeg Transit collects ridership figures

    The most recent data for public transit was made available in 2015. This is updated every census year as the data becomes available.

    The most recent data for public transit ridership was made available in 2015. This is updated annually as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Transportation is an important and unavoidable part of our daily lives whether we are going to work, school, or social gatherings. Convenient and well-designed public transit systems can decrease reliance on automobiles and result in a variety of benefits for the environment, community and citizens.

    This indicator is closely connected to the built environment. The attractiveness of different modes of transportation depends heavily on the design of transportation networks and urban planning (Ewing, Meakins, Bjarnson, & Hilton, 2011; Ewing & Cervero, 2001). Transit use can be encouraged through improvements in the design, efficiency and user-friendliness of public transit, and designing new suburban expansions with public transit in mind.

    Public transit affects the natural environment, reducing automobile use, greenhouse gas emissions and the release of other atmospheric pollutants.

    Public transit is also linked to health. In particular, public transit users often get more exercise than people who drive because walking is required to get to and from bus stops. This exercise increases the likelihood that users will meet the minimum daily recommendation for exercise which, in turn, can help prevent various illnesses (Besser & Dannenberg, 2005; Lachapelle & Frank, 2009).

    Measurement and Limitations

    The public transit use indicator includes two elements: (1) the percentage of people who use public transit to get to work; and (2) the number of transit trips per capita.

    Transit to get to work: All members of the labour force aged 15 years and over who worked at some time over the previous year are included. This does not take into account individual variation in the mode of transportation taken to work. For instance, an individual who drives a car to work 60 per cent of the time and takes public transit 40 per cent of the time would only be recorded as using an automobile. This also does not account for transportation used for outings not related to work.

    Additionally, this indicator does not take into account differences in distance. An individual travelling 5 kilometres to work by bus is not differentiated from someone travelling 15.

    Transit trips per capita: this is the total number of transit trips (as reported by Winnipeg Transit) divided by the total population of Winnipeg (as reported by Manitoba Health).

    Winnipeg Transit conducts quarterly fare surveys to calculate the proportions of passengers who use cash, tickets and bus passes. These proportions vary by route type (local, express), day of the week (Weekday, Saturday, Sunday/Holiday), and season. Using a complicated formula, pass ridership is calculated by applying these ratios to the daily cash and ticket revenues as well as sales of the weekly and monthly bus passes. Also figuring into this is an estimate of daily pass usage based on a study of pass riders' trip diaries.

    References

    Besser, L.M., & Dannenberg, A.L. (2005). Walking to public transit: Steps to help meet physical activity recommendations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 29(4), 273-280.

    Ewing, R., & Cervero, R. (2001). Travel and the built environment: A synthesis. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. 1780, 87-114.

    Ewing, R., Meakins, G., Bjarnson, G., & Hilton, H. (2011). Transportation and land use. Making Healthy Places, part III, 149-169.

    LaChapelle, U., & Frank, L.D. (2009). Transit and health: Mode of transport, employer-sponsored public transit pass programs, and physical activity. Journal of Public Health Policy, 30, 573-594.

    Census Indicators
    • Ridership
    • Total taking public transit
  • Quality of life
  • Quality of life measures the percentage of Winnipeggers who believe that the quality of life in Winnipeg is good or very good.

    Data Source

    City of Winnipeg Citizen Survey. Online copies of each survey may be found at http://www.winnipeg.ca/interhom/CityHall/surveys.stm.

    Statistics Canada (n.d.).

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This is updated annually as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Quality of life is measured differently by different organizations and there is no commonly agreed methodology. However, on a fundamental basis, quality of life indicators are meant to measure the subjective well-being or happiness/ sense of satisfaction with life within a population. Quality of life thus differs from other indicators like standard of living or per capita GDP which calculates wellbeing in financial terms.

    Indicators such as OECD's Better Life Index, Mercer's Quality of Living Survey and the Economist Intelligence Unit's Quality-of-Life Index are based on relatively complex methodologies combining subjective life satisfaction surveys to objective determinants of quality of life across countries such as life expectancy, divorce rates, murder rates and GDP per capita. Other methodologies are more simplistic and rely exclusively on life satisfaction questionnaires.

    Quality of life is receiving renewed interest with national and sub-national policy makers due to the emergence of concepts such as Gross National Happiness as an alternative or complement to strictly economic or financial indicators of wellbeing. Many municipalities today continue their efforts to boost quality of life to attract and maintain investments and residents.

    Measurement and Limitations

    There are many alternative approaches to measure quality of life. Some of these involve survey questions that gauge and combine subjective and objective elements into a quality of life index. Citizens' opinions are informed by their experiences and expectations, which vary significantly from person to person, and may also vary across geographies.

    Statistics Canada publishes life satisfaction data at national and provincial levels (Statistics Canada, n.d.). At the municipal level, the City of Winnipeg publishes the annual "Citizen Survey" which includes data on percentage of respondents who believe that the quality of life in Winnipeg is very good or good. The margin of error for the survey is plus or minus 4%, 19 times out of 20.

    References

    City of Winnipeg. (n.d.). Citizen Surveys. Retrieved from http://www.winnipeg.ca/interhom/CityHall/surveys.stm

    Statistics Canada (n.d.). CANSIM Table 105-0501. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1050501&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=37&tabMode=dataTable&csid=

    Census Indicators
    • Quality of life
  • Readiness for school
  • Readiness for school measures the percentage of children that are assessed as ready to learn when they enter kindergarten.

    Data Source

    Data for the Early Development Instrument (EDI) indicator was provided by Healthy Child Manitoba (www.gov.mb.ca/healthychild/).

    This data is also published online at http://www.gov.mb.ca/healthychild/edi/edi_reports.html .

    The EDI questionnaire can be found at http://www.offordcentre.com/readiness/files/EDI_2010-2011_EN.PDF

    Rationale and Connections

    EDI scores are important for assessing childhood readiness for school, providing an indication of children's learning in their first five years of life at home. Basically, children who come to school without the essential skills, abilities, and attitudes for learning attain poorer education levels (Janus et al., 2007).

    Access to EDI results helps communities make informed decisions about how to support the development of their children so that all children fully benefit from their first school experiences (Healthy Child Manitoba (HCM), 2009). Increasingly, EDI data is being used to identify areas of special need, to plan and locate timely interventions such as early childhood programs and to guide broad policy development (Janus et al., 2007).

    EDI is connected to Education & Learning, and Social Vitality. For Education & Learning, children that begin school ready to learn are more likely to have future successes in learning throughout their lives (Healthy Child Manitoba, 2009). For social vitality, EDI results are a reflection of children's early years and the strengths and needs of children's communities (Healthy Child Manitoba, 2009).

    Measurement and Limitations

    The EDI is a population-based measure for communities, developed by Dr. Dan Offord and Dr. Magdalena Janus at the Offord Centre for Child Studies at McMaster University. In Manitoba, the Early Development Instrument (EDI) questionnaire is completed biannually by kindergarten teachers on the children in their classroom. The instrument consists of 104 questions that speak to five core areas of early child development that are good predictors of adult health, education and social outcomes (Janus et al., 2007; Healthy Child Manitoba, 2009). The EDI is never used to assess individual children. Rather, the questionnaire measures how a community of kindergarten children is doing compared to children in other communities. As a result, the EDI is not able to identify individual children with special needs.

    The testing occurs in early spring, giving the teachers ample time to become familiar with their students and is available in both French and English. All parents are notified beforehand of the EDI data collection, allowing them to withdraw their child if desired.

    The EDI data provided here was collected city-wide (all of Winnipeg's school divisions) for the school years 2005/06, 2006/07, and 2008/09.

    The EDI measures (Healthy Child Manitoba, 2009):

    Physical Health and Well-Being: Children are happy, healthy, rested each day.

    Social competence: Children play and get along with others, share, show confidence.

    Emotional maturity: Children are able to concentrate on tasks, help others, show patience, are not often aggressive or angry.

    Language and thinking skills: Children are interested in reading and writing, can count and recognize numbers, shapes.

    Communications skills and general knowledge: Children can tell a story, communicate with adults and other children.

    In order for the EDI to provide reliable and meaningful information, its respondents need to be very familiar with the range of appropriate child behaviour and skills within an early learning setting. Kindergarten teachers and early childhood educators have proven to be the best respondents for these indicators, demonstrating high inter-rater reliability (Janus & Offord, 2007: Janus et al., 2007). Kindergarten teachers and early childhood educators undergo a training/information session to improve data collection consistency.

    EDI data reliability is strong. Reliability refers to the consistency in measurements of a target, or the precision to which data is collected. Janus et al. (2007) found both high internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the EDI, indicating that items proposing to measure similar topics produced similar results and there was little variation in scores when the test was replicated under the same conditions.

    EDI data validity is strong. Validity refers to the accuracy to which the data measures what it is intended to measure. Janus et al. (2007) found statistically significant correlations with responses from parent interviews and scores from other standard tests for measuring child abilities. Janus et al. (2007) also tested for teacher bias, finding that teachers' responses showed no bias related to students' aboriginal status, gender, and socio-economic status.

    References

    Healthy Child Manitoba. (2009). Provincial report: 2008/2009. Retrieved from http://www.gov.mb.ca/healthychild/edi/edi2008.pdf

    Janus, M., Brinkman, S., Duku, E., Hertzman, C., Santos, R., Sayers, M., et al. (2007). The Early Development Instrument: A population-based measure for communities. A handbook on development, properties, and use. Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: Offord Centre for Child Studies. Retrieved from: http://www.gov.mb.ca/healthychild/edi/edi_handbook_2007.pdf

    Janus, M. & Offord, D. (2007). Development and psychometric properties of the Early Development Instrument (EDI): A measure of children's school readiness. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 39, 1-22.

    Census Indicators
    • EDI - Not ready: one or more
    • EDI - Very ready: one or more
  • Residential stability
  • Residential stability is an indicator of stability, investment, and connectivity to a neighbourhood. It measures the percentage of the population that has remained at the same address for five or more years.

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada (Census, NHS 2011)

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated each census year, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Residential stability demonstrates both a commitment and ability to stay and plant roots within a community. Population mobility affects a wide range of factors ranging from the local economy and services, to the spread of infectious disease, and is itself affected by economic conditions (people often move to regions where they can find employment), home ownership, and other factors. High mobility during childhood has been linked to depression (Gilman et al. 2003), and high rates of school mobility have been associated with lower graduation rates (Guevremont et al., 2007; Jimerson et al., 2002).

    Measurement and Limitations

    This indicator measures the percentage of the population that has remained at the same address for five or more years. Data from 2006 and earlier was part of the long-form of the Canadian Census. In 2011, the long-form was cancelled, and this question was made part of the National Household Survey (NHS). Though the questions are comparable, the NHS was a voluntary survey (with a 76% response rate in Manitoba), whereas the Census long-form was mandatory (with a 94% response rate). Though data quality is lower (worse) in the NHS, it remains comparable to previous years.

    References

    Gilman SE, Kawachi I, Fitzmaurice GM, Buka L Socio-economic status, family disruption and residential stability in childhood: relation to onset, recurrence and remission of major depression. Psychol Med. 2003; 33(8):1341-55.

    Guevremont A, Roos NP, Brownell M. Predictors and consequences of grade retention: Examining data from Manitoba Canada. Can J School Psychol 2007;22(1):50-67.

    Jimerson SR, Anderson GE, Whipple AD. Winning the battle and losing the war: Examining the relation between grade retention and dropping out of high school. Psychol Schools 2002;39:441-457.

    Census Indicators
    • Same address as 5 years ago
  • Retail sales
  • Retail sales figures track the dollar value of merchandise sold within the retail trade.

    Data Source

    Economic Development Winnipeg. (n.d.). Key economic indicator Highlights - Winnipeg CMA. Available at:http://www.economicdevelopmentwinnipeg.com/uploads/document_file/winnipeg_key_economic_indicators.xlsx

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Retail sales figures track the dollar value of merchandise sold within the retail trade by taking a sampling of companies engaged in the business of selling end products to consumers.

    They are closely watched as an indicator of the health of the economy (Investopedia, 2013; Little, 2013). They are also one of the "main economic indicators" used by the OECD, and are one of the main leading economic indicators used in predictions of future GDP growth (OECD iLibrary, 2013; Koenig, Dolmas & Piger, 2001).

    The figures are closely watched by both economists and investors because consumer spending drives much of the economy, and they provide a strong picture of the robustness of that spending.

    Measurement and Limitations

    Retail sales data is used as an indicator of the health of the economy since it is a strong indicator of the level of consumer spending. However, they should be interpreted with caution since consumer spending can be affected by credit cycles, the health of the housing market, and other factors. For this reason they should be used alongside other indicators of the health of the economy, as well as indicators of consumer income and wealth.

    References

    Economic Development Winnipeg. (n.d.). Key economic indicators - Winnipeg CMA. Available at:http://www.economicdevelopmentwinnipeg.com/uploads/document_file/winnipeg_key_economic_indicators.xlsx

    Investopedia. (2013). Economic Indicators: Retail Sales Report. Retrieved from: http://www.investopedia.com/university/releases/retailsales.asp

    Koenig, E.F., Dolmas, S. & Piger, J. (2001). The Use and Abuse of "Real-time" Data in Economic Forescasting. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. Retrieved from:http://research.stlouisfed.org/wp/2001/2001-015.pdf

    Little, K. (2013). Why Retail Sales are Important. Retrieved from: http://stocks.about.com/od/marketnews/a/stocksretailsal.htm

    OCED iLibrary. (2013). Main Economic Indicators. Retrieved from:ttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/data/main-economic-indicators/production-and-sales_data-00048-en;jsessionid=l1rhi42q5yd7.x-oecd-live-01?isPartOf=/content/datacollection/mei-data-en

    Census Indicators
    • Retail sales, total
  • Sense of belonging
  • Sense of belonging measures the percentage of people who say that they have a very strong or somewhat strong sense of belonging to their community.

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada (n.d.) CANSIM Table 105-0501. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?Lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1050501&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated annually, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Sense of belonging is "concerned with [an individual's] perception of self as integrated within an interpersonal system (Choenarom, Williams and Hagerty, 2005, p. 20)." According to Human Resources and Skill Development Canada, sense of belonging to a country, region and local community can influence an individual's sense of identity and their extent of participation within a community or society, and is generally associated with better physical and mental health (HRSDC, 2013). In turn, a strong sense of belonging also contributes to the wellbeing of a community or society by improving the quality of interactions between and among individuals and social institutions. In terms of mental health, sense of belonging is shown to influence the ability of an individual to deal with stress in his life and to avoid depression or other mental disorders when confronted with high amounts of stress (Choenarom, Williams and Hagerty, 2005, p. 20). Thus sense of belonging may also be linked to economic productivity by providing a coping mechanism to deal with challenging situations.

    Measurement and Limitations

    Statistics Canada's Canadian Community Health Survey measures responses to the survey question "How would you describe your sense of belonging to your local community? Would you say it is very strong, somewhat strong, somewhat weak, or very weak?" The CCHS is conducted annually, and is designed to produce results at the health region level.

    Data are reported for the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA). It should be noted that 2012 data use new boundaries from previous years' data-the former Churchill Regional Health Authority (RHA) has been integrated into the WRHA. The Churchill RHA has a very small population (approximately 1,000 individuals), but may have affected the figures somewhat.

    References

    Human Resources and Skill Development Canada (HRSDC). 2013. Indicators of Wellbeing in Canada. Social Participation - Sense of Belonging. Retrieved from: http://www4.hrsdc.gc.ca/.3ndic.1t.4r@-eng.jsp?iid=71

    Margot Shields. 2008. Community belonging and self-perceived health. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-003-x/2008002/article/10552-eng.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Sense of belonging
  • Smoking rate
  • Smoking rate measures the percentage of people who reported that they were a "daily smoker," "occasional daily smoker who previously was a daily smoker" or "always an occasional smoker."

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada. (n.d.). CANSIM Table 105-0501: Health indicator profile, annual estimates, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2012 boundaries) and peer groups. Retrieved from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1050501&pattern=&csid=

    Rationale and Connections

    Smoking is an important health indicator, as "smoking is the leading cause of premature death in Canada" (Statistics Canada, 2012), and is a risk factor for serious conditions like lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, and other conditions (Statistics Canada 2013). Estimates suggest that "smoking accounts for between 6% and 15% of total annual healthcare costs in high-income countries like Canada" (Statistics Canada, 2012).

    Measurement and Limitations

    The smoking rate measures the percentage of people who self-report on the Canadian Community Health Survey as "daily smoker," "occasional daily smoker who previously was a daily smoker," or "always an occasional smoker." Since the sample size was small, data are only reported at the city level.

    Data are reported for the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA). It should be noted that 2012 data use new boundaries from previous years' data-the former Churchill Regional Health Authority (RHA) has been integrated into the WRHA. The Churchill RHA has a very small population (approximately 1,000 individuals), but may have affected the figures somewhat.

    References

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2009). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2009. Retrieved fromhttp://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/RHA_Atlas_Report.pdf

    Statistics Canada. (2012). Health at a glance: Current smoking trends. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-624-x/2012001/article/11676-eng.htm

    Statistics Canada. (2013). Smoking, 2011. Retrieved fromhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-625-x/2012001/article/11668-eng.htm

    Census Indicators
    • Smoking rate
  • Smoking rate
  • Smoking rate measures the percentage of people who reported that they were a "daily smoker," "occasional daily smoker who previously was a daily smoker" or "always an occasional smoker."

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada. (n.d.). CANSIM Table 105-0501: Health indicator profile, annual estimates, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2012 boundaries) and peer groups. Retrieved from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1050501&pattern=&csid=

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated annually, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Smoking is an important health indicator, as "smoking is the leading cause of premature death in Canada" (Statistics Canada, 2012), and is a risk factor for serious conditions like lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, and other conditions (Statistics Canada 2013). Estimates suggest that "smoking accounts for between 6 per cent and 15 per cent of total annual healthcare costs in high-income countries like Canada" (Statistics Canada, 2012).

    Measurement and Limitations

    The smoking rate measures the percentage of people who self-report on the Canadian Community Health Survey as "daily smoker," "occasional daily smoker who previously was a daily smoker," or "always an occasional smoker." Since the sample size was small, data are only reported at the city level.

    Data are reported for the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA). It should be noted that 2012 data use new boundaries from previous years' data-the former Churchill Regional Health Authority (RHA) has been integrated into the WRHA. The Churchill RHA has a very small population (approximately 1,000 individuals), but may have affected the figures somewhat.

    References

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2009). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2009. Retrieved fromhttp://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/RHA_Atlas_Report.pdf

    Statistics Canada. (2012). Health at a glance: Current smoking trends. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-624-x/2012001/article/11676-eng.htm

    Statistics Canada. (2013). Smoking, 2011. Retrieved fromhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-625-x/2012001/article/11668-eng.htm

    Census Indicators
    • Smoking rate
  • Stroke
  • The stroke indicator measures the number of hospitalizations or deaths due to stroke per 1,000 residents aged 40 and older.

    Data Source

    Fransoo R, Martens P, The Need To Know Team, Prior H, Burchill C, Koseva I, Bailly A, Allegro E. The 2013 RHA Indicators Atlas. Winnipeg, MB. Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, October 2013.http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/RHA_2013_web_version.pdf

    Rationale and Connections

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, are the leading causes of death globally, and represent a third of all deaths in Winnipeg in any given year. These diseases are also a leading cause of hospitalization and adult disability. Heart attacks and strokes are associated with social and economic disadvantage. Opportunities for employment, income, education, and housing have enormous potential to reduce the unequal burden of heart disease and stroke.

    Measurement and Limitations

    The stroke indicator measures the number of hospitalizations or deaths due to stroke per 1,000 residents aged 40 and older. A stroke was defined by either: “At least one hospitalization with an ICD-9-CM code of 431, 434, 436 or an ICD-10—CA code of 161, 163, 164, or a cause of death in Vital Statistics files of stroke” (Fransoo, Martens, The Need To Know Team, Prior, Burchill, Bailly & Allegro, 2013). Rates are sex- and age- adjusted.

    In MCHP data, stroke rate is expressed by an annual rate as one person could experience more than one event in a given period. Stroke prevalence is based partly on data from physician fee-for-service claims and “shadow” billing claims for salaried physicians.

    It should be noted that patients who were attended by nurses, misdiagnosed, or did not seek treatment are not recorded in official statistics in the database.

    References

    Fransoo, R., Martens, P., The Need to Know Team, Prior, H., Burchill, C., Bailly, A. & Allegro, E. (2013). The 2013 RHA Indicators Atlas. Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, Winnipeg, MB.

    Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). 2009. 2009 Tracking Heart Disease and Stroke in Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/2009/cvd-avc/summary-resume-eng.php

    Census Indicators
    • Strokes
  • Substance abuse
  • Substance abuse measures the number of people aged 10 or older who have been diagnosed as abusing drugs or alcohol.

    Data Source

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2013). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2013. Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference//RHA_2013_web_version.pdf

    Rationale and Connections

    Substance abuse (drugs and alcohol) has a major impact on Canadians' health, on society, and on our economy. Tens of thousands of Canadians are hospitalized each year for alcohol abuse - approximately 86,000 per year according to the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA) (2005, p. 6). In addition to the human cost, the economic costs of substance abuse to society, and to the health care system are significant. It has been estimated that substance abuse (including tobacco use) cost Canadian society approximately $1,267 for every Canadian, or $39.8 billion in 2002 (CCSA, 2006, p. 1).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Substance abuse measures the number of residents aged 10 or older diagnosed with "alcoholic or drug psychoses, alcohol or drug dependence, or nondependent abuse of drugs" (MCHP, 2013, p. 126). Prevalence was calculated from International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes from hospitalization or physician visits in a five-year period.

    More specifically, substance abuse was defined as at least one hospitalization with an ICD-9-CM code of 291, 292, 303, 304, 305 or an ICD-10-CA code of F10-F19, F55 or at least one physician visit with an ICD-9-CM code of 291, 292, 303, 304, or 305.

    This indicator likely undercounts the number of individuals with substance abuse issues, since it only captures individuals visiting physicians or hospitals and being coded to one of the substance-abuse codes listed below.

    References

    Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA). (2005). Substance abuse in Canada: Current challenges and choices. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Retrieved from http://www.ccsa.ca/2005%20CCSA%20Documents/ccsa-004032-2005.pdf

    CCSA. (2006). The costs of substance abuse in Canada 2002: Highlights. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Retrieved from http://www.ccsa.ca/2006%20CCSA%20Documents/ccsa-011332-2006.pdf

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2009). Manitoba RHA indicators atlas 2009. Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/RHA_Atlas_Report.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Substance abuse
  • Teen pregnancy rate
  • Teen pregnancy rate measures the number of pregnancies in females aged 15 to 19 years per 1,000 females of the same age.

    Data Source

    Manitoba Child Health Atlas Update, available on the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy website: http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/Child_Health_Atlas_Update_Final.pdf

    Rationale and Connections

    Research demonstrates that teenage mothers tend to have lower educational and employment opportunities and that children of teenage mothers are at greater risk of poor health and educational outcomes compared to children of mothers who delayed childbirth until adult years (MCHP, 2008). For these reasons, a reduction in teenage birth rates is viewed as a positive outcome. Teen pregnancy is also associated with other risky behaviours, such as "substance abuse, smoking during pregnancy, and physical or sexual abuse" (MCHP, 2012).

    Teenage births are strongly connected to both health and education & learning. In relation to health, research shows that teen mothers are at significantly higher risk of delivering low-birth weight babies, who are more at risk of developing chronic health problems (HRSDC, 2011).

    With respect to education & learning, teenage mothers tend to attain significantly lower levels of education than comparable teenagers that do not give birth between the ages of 15 to 19 (Bradley, Cupples, & Irvine, 2002; Chase-Lansdale & Brooks-Gunn, 1994; Hoffman, 2008; MCHP, 2008).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Teen pregnancy rate measures the number of pregnancies in females aged 15 to 19 years per 1,000 females of the same age. The ratio includes live births, still births, abortions and ectopic pregnancies in hospital data.

    The teen pregnancy rate was calculated using data from hospital records. Abortions performed in private clinics were not included in the data during the two time periods (1996/97-2000/01 and 2001/02-2005/06), which may result in the teen pregnancy rate being underestimated in the study (Manitoba Child Health Atlas Update, p. 27).

    References

    Bradley, T., Cupples, M.E., & Irvine, H. (2002). A case control study of a deprivation triangle: Teenage motherhood, poor educational achievement and unemployment. International Journal of Adolescent Medical Health, 14(2), 117-123.

    Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). (2011). About teen pregnancy. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cdc.gov/TeenPregnancy/AboutTeenPreg.htm

    Chase-Lansdale, P.L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1994).Correlates of adolescent pregnancy and parenthood. In C.B. Fischer & R.M. Lerner (Eds.). Applied Developmental Psychology (pp. 207-236). New York: NY McGraw-Hill.

    Federal/Provincial/Territorial Advisory Committee on Population Health. (1999). Statistical report on the health of Canadians. Ottawa: Health Canada. Retrieved fromhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-570-x/82-570-x1997001-eng.pdf

    Hoffman, S. D. (2008).Kids having kids: Economic costs and social consequences of teen pregnancy. Washington: The Urban Institute Press.

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. (2011). Indicators of well-being in Canada. Retrieved fromhttp://www4.hrsdc.gc.ca/.3ndic.1t.4r@-eng.jsp?iid=4

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). (2008). Manitoba child health atlas update. Winnipeg, MB: MCHP. Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/Child_Health_Atlas_Update_Final.pdf

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2012, October). How are Manitoba's children doing? Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/mb_kids_report_WEB.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Teen pregnancy rate
  • Teen pregnancy rate
  • Teen pregnancy rate measures the number of pregnancies in females aged 15 to 19 years per 1,000 females of the same age.

    Data Source

    Manitoba Child Health Atlas Update, available on the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy website: http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/Child_Health_Atlas_Update_Final.pdf

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2015. This data is updated every 5 years as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Research demonstrates that teenage mothers tend to have lower educational and employment opportunities and that children of teenage mothers are at greater risk of poor health and educational outcomes compared to children of mothers who delayed childbirth until adult years (MCHP, 2008). For these reasons, a reduction in teenage birth rates is viewed as a positive outcome. Teen pregnancy is also associated with other risky behaviours, such as "substance abuse, smoking during pregnancy, and physical or sexual abuse" (MCHP, 2012).

    Teenage births are strongly connected to both health and education & learning. In relation to health, research shows that teen mothers are at significantly higher risk of delivering low-birth weight babies, who are more at risk of developing chronic health problems (HRSDC, 2011).

    With respect to education & learning, teenage mothers tend to attain significantly lower levels of education than comparable teenagers that do not give birth between the ages of 15 to 19 (Bradley, Cupples, & Irvine, 2002; Chase-Lansdale & Brooks-Gunn, 1994; Hoffman, 2008; MCHP, 2008).

    Measurement and Limitations

    Teen pregnancy rate measures the number of pregnancies in females aged 15 to 19 years per 1,000 females of the same age. The ratio includes live births, still births, abortions and ectopic pregnancies in hospital data.

    The teen pregnancy rate was calculated using data from hospital records. Abortions performed in private clinics were not included in the data during the two time periods (1996/97-2000/01 and 2001/02-2005/06), which may result in the teen pregnancy rate being underestimated in the study (Manitoba Child Health Atlas Update, p. 27).

    References

    Bradley, T., Cupples, M.E., & Irvine, H. (2002). A case control study of a deprivation triangle: Teenage motherhood, poor educational achievement and unemployment. International Journal of Adolescent Medical Health, 14(2), 117-123.

    Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). (2011). About teen pregnancy. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/TeenPregnancy/AboutTeenPreg.htm

    Chase-Lansdale, P.L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1994). Correlates of adolescent pregnancy and parenthood. In C.B. Fischer & R.M. Lerner (Eds.). Applied Developmental Psychology (pp. 207-236). New York: NY McGraw-Hill.

    Federal/Provincial/Territorial Advisory Committee on Population Health. (1999). Statistical report on the health of Canadians. Ottawa: Health Canada. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-570-x/82-570-x1997001-eng.pdf

    Hoffman, S. D. (2008). Kids having kids: Economic costs and social consequences of teen pregnancy. Washington: The Urban Institute Press.

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. (2011). Indicators of well-being in Canada. Retrieved from http://www4.hrsdc.gc.ca/.3ndic.1t.4r@-eng.jsp?iid=4

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). (2008). Manitoba child health atlas update. Winnipeg, MB: MCHP. Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/Child_Health_Atlas_Update_Final.pdf

    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. (2012, October). How are Manitoba's children doing? Retrieved from http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference/mb_kids_report_WEB.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Teen pregnancy rate
  • Unemployment rate
  • The unemployment rate shows the percentage of Canadian adults who are not employed, are looking for work, and are available to take a job.

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada

    The most recent data was abailable in 2016. This data is updated annually as it becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    The unemployment rate shows the percentage of Canadian adults (15 years of age and over) who are not working for pay, and are therefore not in a position to earn income. It is a common measure of economic well-being, and is one of the major social determinants of health (Mikkonen & Raphael 2010). Also, as an indicator of participation in the workforce, it can be used as an indicator of social capital.

    Measurement and Limitations

    According to Statistics Canada: "unemployment is based primarily on the activity of job search and the availability to take a job. In addition to being conceptually appropriate, job search activities can, in a household survey, be objectively and consistently measured over time. The definition of unemployment is therefore the following. Unemployed persons are those who, during reference week (a) were on temporary layoff during the reference week with an expectation of recall and were available for work, or (b) were without work, had looked for work in the past four weeks, and were available for work, or (c) had a new job to start within four weeks from reference week, and were available for work."

    References

    Statistics Canada. (2010). Guide to the Labour Force Survey: Determining labour force status. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/71-543-g/2010001/part-partie2-eng.htm

    Mikkonen, J., & Raphael, D. (2010). Social Determinants of Health: The Canadian Facts. Toronto: York University School of Health Policy and Management. Available at:http://ywcacanada.ca/data/research_docs/00000131.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Unemployment rate
  • Volunteerism
  • Volunteerism measures the percentage of Winnipeggers who volunteered their time within the last year.

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada. n.d. General Social Survey

    Rationale and Connections

    Volunteerism makes a significant difference in Winnipeg, providing time and expertise to allow the operation of services and programs that could not otherwise be delivered. Contributions include fundraising, organizing events, sitting on a board, teaching or mentoring, and a wide range of activities that contribute to our society.

    Volunteerism is strongly related to the social vitality of our community, and supporting the basic needs of our vulnerable populations: most volunteer hours contribute to organizations related to sports and recreation, social services, education and research, religion, development and housing, and health.

    Measurement and Limitations

    According to Statistics Canada, volunteers are "Persons aged 15 and over who did any activities without pay on behalf of a group or organization, at least once in the 12 months preceding the survey. This includes any unpaid help provided to schools, religious organizations, sports or community associations." (Statistics Canada, 2012).

    The volunteerism in Canada data were obtained from the Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (CSGVP).

    References

    Statistics Canada. (2012). Study: Volunteering in Canada, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/120416/dq120416b-eng.pdf

    Vezina, M., & Crompton, S. (2012). Volunteering in Canada. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2012001/article/11638-eng.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Volunteerism
  • Voter turnout
  • Voter turnout measures the percentage of registered voters who turn out to vote in elections. Peg reports this indicator for municipal, provincial, and federal elections separately.

    Data Source

    Voter turnout data for all of Canada's previous federal elections can be found at: http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=ele&dir=turn&document=index&lang=e

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated when the data is released publically following an election.

    Voter turnout data for all of Manitoba's previous provincial elections can be found at: http://www.electionsmanitoba.ca/downloads/HistoricalSummary.pdf.

    Voter turnout data for Winnipeg's previous municipal elections can be found at: http://winnipeg.ca/clerks/election/election2014/pdfs/officialresults.pdf

    Rationale and Connections

    Elections are the most fundamental processes of democratic engagement, and high turnouts are generally considered to be positive-voter turnouts are an indicator of the overall health of the democratic system. Voter turnout varies across the population, with some groups better represented at the polls than others. Age, education, and income are three major factors that influence voter turnout. A common concern is that low voter turnouts may affect the extent to which electoral outcomes (and therefore policies of government) reflect the will of the general population.

    Measurement and Limitations

    Voter turnout was calculated by looking at the number of votes divided by the number of registered voters. There are several other ways of calculating voter turnout. For instance, voter turnout is often calculated by dividing the number of people going to the polls to vote divided by the number of eligible voters. Though this would give a more accurate representation of the percentage of the eligible population that votes, it can be difficult to determine the precise number of eligible voters. Caution should be used when comparing against other figures. Figures for both Federal and Provincial elections are tabulated based on calculating the total voter turnout for ridings only within the City of Winnipeg.

    References

    City of Winnipeg. (2013). Election archive. Retrieved from http://www.electionsmanitoba.ca/downloads/HistoricalSummary.pdf

    Elections Canada. (2013). Past elections. Retrieved from http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=ele&dir=turn&document=index&lang=e

    Statistics Canada. (2012). Factors associated with voting. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2012001/article/11629-eng.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Federal
    • Municipal
    • Provincial
  • Waste
  • This indicator measures the number of kilograms of residential waste that goes to landfill each year per capita, and the percentage of waste that is diverted from the landfill.

    Data Source

    The data are provided by the City of Winnipeg Water and Waste Department, compiled on an annual basis and available on their website.

    Residential garbage data can be found at: http://www.winnipeg.ca/waterandwaste/garbage/residentialReport.stm

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated bi-annually, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Data on the amount of residential waste going to landfill can help identify increases or decreases in landfill use. These changes could relate to waste diversion, such as recycling, composting and reuse, as well as changes such as overall decreases in total materials produced (e.g., due to such measures as decreased packaging). Diverting waste from landfills has important environmental benefits, including the reduction of greenhouse gases (primarily methane and carbon dioxide) and increasing the conservation of resources through reuse and recycling (Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM), 2009). For instance, landfills were the third largest human-related source of methane, a major greenhouse gas, in the United States in 2009 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011).

    This indicator is connected to the built environment. Waste disposal is an important public service (United Nations, 2011). A disruption of this service would very quickly disrupt the well-being of the society.

    While waste management is essential, it should be noted that various health effects from living near landfills have been documented (Vrijheid, 2000). Such concerns suggest that waste diversion options, such as recycling, composting, reusing and careful disposal or recycling of hazardous wastes should be pursued.

    Measurement and Limitations

    This indicator measures the number of tonnes of residential waste that goes to landfill each year per capita.

    Residential waste is defined as garbage generated by both single-family households and multi-family buildings; institutional, commercial, industrial, construction and demolition waste are not included in this measure (FCM, 2009). Residential waste that does not enter landfills and is not diverted is not included either. For instance, garbage which is burned, enters wastewater, or disposed of illegally (e.g., dumped in waterways or natural areas) is not included.

    References

    Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM). (2009). Getting to 50% and beyond: Waste diversion success stories from Canadian municipalities. Retrieved from http://fmv.fcm.ca/files/Capacity_Building_-_Waste/WasteDiversion-EN.pdf

    Pichtel, J. (2005). Waste management practices: Municipal, hazardous and industrial. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group.

    United Nations. (2011). New initiative to aid local governments in managing growing waste problem. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2011/envdev1212.doc.htm

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Inventory of US greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2009. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads11/US-GHG-Inventory-2011-Complete_Report.pdf

    Vrijheid, M. (2000). Health effects of residence near hazardous waste landfill sites: A review of epidemiologic literature. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108, 101-112.

    Census Indicators
    • Recycle report
    • garbage
  • Waste
  • This indicator measures the number of kilograms of residential waste that goes to landfill each year per capita, and the percentage of waste that is diverted from the landfill.

    Data Source

    The data are provided by the City of Winnipeg Water and Waste Department, compiled on an annual basis and available on their website.

    Residential garbage data can be found at: http://www.winnipeg.ca/waterandwaste/garbage/residentialReport.stm

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated bi-annually, as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    Data on the amount of residential waste going to landfill can help identify increases or decreases in landfill use. These changes could relate to waste diversion, such as recycling, composting and reuse, as well as changes such as overall decreases in total materials produced (e.g., due to such measures as decreased packaging). Diverting waste from landfills has important environmental benefits, including the reduction of greenhouse gases (primarily methane and carbon dioxide) and increasing the conservation of resources through reuse and recycling (Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM), 2009). For instance, landfills were the third largest human-related source of methane, a major greenhouse gas, in the United States in 2009 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011).

    This indicator is connected to the built environment. Waste disposal is an important public service (United Nations, 2011). A disruption of this service would very quickly disrupt the well-being of the society.

    While waste management is essential, it should be noted that various health effects from living near landfills have been documented (Vrijheid, 2000). Such concerns suggest that waste diversion options, such as recycling, composting, reusing and careful disposal or recycling of hazardous wastes should be pursued.

    Measurement and Limitations

    This indicator measures the number of tonnes of residential waste that goes to landfill each year per capita.

    Residential waste is defined as garbage generated by both single-family households and multi-family buildings; institutional, commercial, industrial, construction and demolition waste are not included in this measure (FCM, 2009). Residential waste that does not enter landfills and is not diverted is not included either. For instance, garbage which is burned, enters wastewater, or disposed of illegally (e.g., dumped in waterways or natural areas) is not included.

    References

    Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM). (2009). Getting to 50% and beyond: Waste diversion success stories from Canadian municipalities. Retrieved from http://fmv.fcm.ca/files/Capacity_Building_-_Waste/WasteDiversion-EN.pdf

    Pichtel, J. (2005). Waste management practices: Municipal, hazardous and industrial. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group.

    United Nations. (2011). New initiative to aid local governments in managing growing waste problem. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2011/envdev1212.doc.htm

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Inventory of US greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2009. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads11/US-GHG-Inventory-2011-Complete_Report.pdf

    Vrijheid, M. (2000). Health effects of residence near hazardous waste landfill sites: A review of epidemiologic literature. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108, 101-112.

    Census Indicators
    • Recycle report
    • garbage
  • Water use
  • Water use measures the average amount of water used per person.

    Data Source

    Data are provided by the City of Winnipeg's Department of Water and Waste.

    http://www.winnipeg.ca/waterandwaste/water/conservation/consumptionReport.stm

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated annually as the data becomes available.

    Rationale and Connections

    The world is facing a significant water crisis as a result of over-consumption, pollution, climate change and population growth in water-stressed regions (Barlow, 2007; Brown, 2011). In Canada, water scarcity is not as imminent as in some other countries; however proper stewardship and care remains important (Zubrycki, Roy, Venema, & Brooks, 2011).

    Water consumption is linked to the natural environment, particularly if water quantity or quality within waterways is lowered to the point that the well-being of organisms and ecosystems is affected. Instream flow needs, the amount of water required to support aquatic organisms and their habitats (e.g., wetlands), can be threatened by large-scale human consumption (Morris et al., 2007; UNESCO, 2009). For the City of Winnipeg, water flows through a 136 kilometre aqueduct from Shoal Lake, Ontario, to Deacon Reservoir, where water is then pumped into the city (City of Winnipeg, 2010).

    Water consumption also relates to basic needs. Humans need roughly 50 litres per person per day to meet their basic needs (i.e., drinking water, bathing, sanitation and food preparation) (Gleick, 1996). Winnipeg uses far above that; in 2009, the average water use was 301 litres per capita per day (City of Winnipeg, 2010). This number is slightly lower than the Canadian average. However, Canadian per capita usage is higher than every other country in the world except the United States (Environment Canada, 2011).

    Finally, water consumption is connected with the built environment. Cities across Canada have aging water delivery systems, which results in losses during distribution. In 2010, 15.4 per cent of Winnipeg water was unaccounted for, much of this due to leaks (City of Winnipeg, 2010). Homes and businesses are also part of the built environment, and can contribute to reduced water consumption by installing water-efficient appliances and fixtures.

    The City of Winnipeg (2011) provides a number of residential water conservation tips on their water conservation website:

    http://www.winnipeg.ca/waterandwaste/water/conservation/tipsResidential.stm

    Measurement and Limitations

    The water consumption rate is calculated as the average number of litres used per capita per day in the City of Winnipeg. These data have been available for each year since 1921 (City of Winnipeg, 2010).

    The data presented here include all metered water use in the City of Winnipeg, including business, industry, etc.

    References

    Barlow, M. (2007). The global water crisis and the coming battle for the right to water. Toronto, Ontario: McClelland & Stewart Ltd.

    Brown, L. (2011). World on the edge: How to prevent environmental and economic collapse. New York, NY: Earth Policy Institute.

    City of Winnipeg. (2010). 2010 water consumption summary report. Retrieved from http://www.winnipeg.ca/waterandwaste/pdfs/water/2010WaterConsumptionSummaryReport.pdf

    City of Winnipeg. (2011). Water conservation: Residential water saving tips. Retrieved from http://www.winnipeg.ca/waterandwaste/water/conservation/tipsResidential.stm

    Gleick, P.H. (1996). Basic water requirements for human activities: meeting basic needs. Water International, 21, 83-92.

    Morris, T.J, Boyd, D.R., Brandes, O.M., Bruce, J.P., Hudon, M., B. Lucas. . . Phare, M. (2007). Changing the flow: A blueprint for federal action on freshwater. The Gordon Water Group of Concerned Scientists and Citizens. Retrieved from http://www.poliswaterproject.org/sites/default/files/ChangingtheFlow_1.pdf

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. (2009). The 3rd United Nations world water development report: Water in a changing world. Paris, France: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/wwdr/wwdr3/

    Zubrycki, K., Roy, D., Venema, H.D., & Brooks, D. (2011). Water security in Canada: Responsibilities of the federal government. International Institute for Sustainable Development. Retrieved from http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2011/water_security_canada.pdf

    Census Indicators
    • Water per capita
  • Youth unemployment rate
  • The youth unemployment rate measures youth involvement in the labour force.

    Data Source

    Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 282-0129. Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by census metropolitan area based on 2011 census boundaries, sex and age group

    The most recent data for this indicator was made available in 2016. This data is updated annually.

    Rationale and Connections

    The youth unemployment rate is an indicator of youth involvement in the economy, and it has been shown that early work experience has a major impact on people's long-term career prospects. Youth unemployment can have long-term effects on an economy like lower levels of human capital, reduced wage rates and weakened future labour force participation (Mroz and Savage, 2006; Gregg, 2001; Gregg and Tominey, 2005; Arulampalam, 2001). The failure to find a first job or retain employment can have long-term consequences on career prospects commonly referred to as "scarring" (Ellwood, 1982; Heckman and Borjas, 1980; Corcoran, 1982) which adversely affects happiness, job satisfaction and health, later in life (Scarpetta et al. 2010). Youth unemployment is also correlated with crime (Fougere et al. 2009; Bell and Blanchflower, 2011).

    Measurement and Limitations

    From May to August, the Labour Force Survey collects labour market data about young people aged 15 to 24 who were attending school full time in March and who intend to return to school full time in the fall. The May survey results provide the first indicators of the summer job market, especially for students aged 20 to 24, as most students aged 15 to 19 are not yet out of school for the summer. The data for June, July and August will provide further insight into the summer job market. The published data are not seasonally adjusted, and therefore comparisons can only be made from one year to another.

    References

    Labour Force Survey Youth Unemployment CMA Statistics Canada 282-0109 (seasonally unadjusted) http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&id=2820109

    Fougere, D., Kramarz, F., & Pouget, J. (2009). Youth unemployment and crime in France. Journal of the European Economic Association, 7(5), 909-938.

    Mroz, T. A., & Savage, T. H. (2006). The long-term effects of youth unemployment. Journal of Human Resources, 41(2), 259-293.

    Ellwood, D. T. (1982). Teenage unemployment: Permanent scars or temporary blemishes?. In The youth labor market problem: Its nature, causes, and consequences (pp. 349-390). University of Chicago Press. http://www.nber.org/chapters/c7878.pdf

    Scarpetta, S., A. Sonnet and T. Manfredi (2010), "Rising Youth Unemployment During The Crisis: How to Prevent Negative Long-term Consequences on a Generation?", OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 106, OECD Publishing. doi: 10.1787/5kmh79zb2mmv-en. Retrieved from: http://zunia.org/sites/default/files/media/node-files/yo/193707_youthunemploymnt1282469690.pdf

    Gregg, P. (2001), "The Impact of Youth Unemployment on Adult Unemployment in NCDS", Economic Journal, 111(475), pp. 623-653.

    Gregg, P. and E. Tominey (2005), "CThe Wage Scar From Male Youth Unemployment", Labour Economics, 12(4), pp. 487-509.

    Arulampalam, W. (2001), "Is Unemployment Really Scarring? Effects of Unemployment on Wages", Economic Journal, Vol. 111, pp. 585-606.

    Bell, D., & Blanchflower, D. (2011). Youth unemployment in Europe and the United States. http://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/52025/1/666568499.pdf

    Heckman, J. J., & Borjas, G. J. (1980). Does unemployment cause future unemployment? Definitions, questions and answers from a continuous time model of heterogeneity and state dependence. Economica, 47(187), 247-283.

    Corcoran, M. (1982), The employment and wage consequences of teenage women's nonemployment, in Freeman, R. B. and D. A. Wise, (editors), The Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences, University of Chicago Press and NBER.

    Census Indicators
    • Youth unemployment rate